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During the 2019 excavation season, three trenches (T96 [AJT/NKD I], T97 [HMR/MNK I], and T98 [EC XIII]) were opened in the area west of the previously-excavated trench Civitate C7, or CC7, on the Piano del Tesoro. These three trenches, along with T94 and T95 (located further west), were opened to investigate the presence of non-elite habitation at Poggio Civitate. Three additional trenches (T94 [KAM I], T95 [KD VI], T99 [HMR/MNK II]) were opened further west along the medieval road with the same purpose of searching for additional examples of non-elite architecture.

Excavation of the Civitate C area was first excavated in 1969 (SW/NW I). Civitate C was then revisited beginning in 2007 (KGM I and JAH/JLL II). A 4 x 4 metre trench, CC7, and its five associated extensions, uncovered a large ovoid rock feature cut into the galestra of the hill. Excavations in 2008 (AJC/ARR I) and 2009 (AJC/ARR II) revealed a curvilinear hut cut into galestra, likely dating to the mid 7th century. By the end of the 7th century, the hut was abandoned and converted to a midden, as evidenced by the high quantities of debris found inside the hut’s cutting, recovering material typically associated with rubbish middens; the excavators identified the feature as a hut-like structure, which was filled with rubbish in antiquity. One particularly notable find included a concentration of murex shells, which were used in the production of purple dye. CC8 (AMA/CGM II) was also opened in 2007 with the same goal of investigating non-elite habitation, approximately nine metres east of CC7; the results of this trench were inconclusive. Excavation in 2009 (AJC/ARR II) further supported the association of the feature with a midden and non-elite habitation.

Continued interest in non-elite habitation on Poggio Civitate led to the opening of two test trenches in 2012 (CA70 [AAF II], CA71 [CGL I]), also situated along the medieval road, although this time, in the Civitate A area. The discovery of small walls in these two trenches led to the opening of a series of trenches in 2012 and 2013. Three more trenches, CA 72 (AEG VI), CA 73 (ARR IV), and CA 74 (CAC I) were opened adjacent to the eastern and western edges of CA 70 and 71 in order to more fully reveal the rock feature first uncovered in CA 70 and CA 71. By the end of the 2012 season, the architectural remains of a light-frame building were uncovered. Exposed remains included a wall and five more lines of parallel rocks that are too insubstantial to be load bearing but may have partitioned the interior space of an adjacent structure.

Excavations continued in 2013. In total, 13 trenches were opened in 2012 and 2013: CA70 (AAF II), CA71 (CGL I), CA72 (AEG VII), CA73 (ARR V), CA74 (CAC I), CA76 (LHS II), CA77 (EC X), CA78 (AJC V), CA79 (EMO IV), CA80 (CLP I), CA81 (MLL I), CA82 (RDC I), and CA83 (KRK VI). These thirteen trenches revealed two small, rectilinear structures with stone foundation walls, with the better preserved structure overlying the earlier, more poorly preserved building; both overlie an earlier, curvilinear structure. An internally partitioned, secondary structure was attached to the latest rectilinear structure’s western wall.

Slag and terracotta recovered in 2012 from CA 70, as well as spindle whorls, rocchetti, and an antler hammer, suggest a domestic scale of production; the possibility of light-frame architecture suggested to the excavators a non-elite structure. Slag and vitrified terracotta from CA72 also suggested metalworking on a small scale, dating to the Iron Age, Orientalizing, and possibly the Archaic periods. Quantities of antler, horn, and worked bone recovered in 2013 also indicate small-scale animal processing.

See the following for additional information:

CA70 (AAF II), CA71 (CGL I), CA72 (AEG VII), CA73 (ARR V), CA74 (CAC I), CA76 (LHS II), CA77 (EC X), CA78 (AJC V), CA79 (EMO IV), CA80 (CLP I), CA81 (MLL I), CA82 (RDC I), CA 83 (KRK VI)

Therefore, T96 has been opened with the following goals:

1. To search for additional examples of non-elite habitation at Poggio Civitate; 2. To establish a relationship between T96 and CC7; 3. To further explore the relationship between non-elite domestic space and industry, as evidenced by the presence of high quantities of slag in CA70 and of murex shells in CC7.

Suggested Citation

Anthony Tuck. (2019) "T96 (nan):3-10; Introduction from Europe/Italy/Poggio Civitate/Tesoro/Tesoro 96/T96 2019". In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed). Released: 2019-09-13. Open Context. <> ARK (Archive):

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