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Descriptive Attribute Value(s)
Type Warriors, Horses, and Chariots
Title Horse-and-Rider Figurine
Excavation Unit 94
Stratigraphic Unit 9416 & 9416
Context Found in two pieces, now joined. The torso (with fragmentary rider) was discovered in the construction fill of the hard-packed floor layer associated with the Hellenistic-Roman phase of the sanctuary (EU 94/SU 9410). The snout was found in a disturbed context, a mixed deposit consisting of cultural layers and modern looter pits (EU 94/SU 9416).
Current Location Larnaka District Archaeological Museum, Cyprus
Material Terracotta
Height (cm) 13.855
Width (cm) 17.45
Date 600 – 480 BCE
Thickness (cm) 6.824
Weight (kg) 0.353
Description Handmade horse-and-rider figurine (muzzle found separately, now joined), missing proper right rear leg, lower part of proper right front leg, and tail; the rider is missing except the attachment point, the saddle, and proper left leg. The horse’s body is summarily rendered as a small cylinder, with long, flattened cylindrical legs that taper to a flat circular end (no fetlock or hooves are modeled). Only the beginning of the tail is preserved. A double breast collar with two hanging tassels, divided by vertical incisions into four parts with traces of black and red pigment, decorates the neck. There are attachment points for the rider’s hands (now missing) on each side of the neck. The horse’s head has upright triangular ears with vertical indentations delineating the inner ear, and a rounded, applied forelock smooths onto the mane. The horse head has modeled, bulging eyes (painted with large, black outlines and a black dot pupils) and ends in a long muzzle with an incised mouth with a bit and two vertical, incised nostrils. The bit, consisting of a circular pellet with a crescent-shaped loop, is attached to a bridle made of added clay, with a long and deep incision forming two straps (right side partially missing). The cheekpieces terminate in two coffee bean–shaped beads. A wide, flat applied strap runs along the top of the nose (upper half between the eyes missing). Traces of red pigment preserved all over the horse. On the back of the horse are the remains of an applied flat saddle or blanket. A rider was originally attached to the saddle, positioned close to the horse’s neck to grip the mane or bridle with both hands. The preserved rider’s left leg extends down to the horse’s front knees. The rider’s foot is simple in shape, with no footwear detailed. Fabric is a yellowish beige (10YR 8/3) with small dark inclusions.
Commentary Horse-and-rider figurines were popular dedications in sanctuaries of male deities in the CA period (especially prevalent at the sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion) and were also placed in some tombs. Horses, whether individual figurines or part of a chariot group or with a rider, are associated with wealth and elite status and carry military connotations as well. AAP-AM-1099 is similar to a horse-and-rider figurine from a tomb at Amathous and some unprovenanced figurines with similar bridles and tassels (Karageorghis 1995: 86–89, cat. nos. 86, 90, pl. XLVII: 2, 4).
Bibliography Averett 2011: 140, fig. 10.11
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Suggested Citation

Derek Counts, Erin Averett, Kevin Garstki. (2020) "AAP-AM-1099 from Europe/Cyprus/Athienou-Malloura". In Visualizing Votive Practice: Exploring Limestone and Terracotta Sculpture from Athienou-Malloura through 3D Models. Derek B. Counts, Erin Walcek Averett, Kevin Garstki, Michael Toumazou (Ed). Released: 2020-07-28. Open Context. <> ARK (Archive):

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