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Descriptive Attribute Value(s)
Type Male Votaries with Conical Helmets and Other Headgear
Title Male Votary Figurine with Conical Helmet
Excavation Unit 36
Stratigraphic Unit 3653
Context Found in the construction fill of the hard-packed floor layer associated with the Hellenistic-Roman phase of the sanctuary (EU 36/SU 3653).
Current Location Larnaka District Archaeological Museum, Cyprus
Material Terracotta
Height (cm) 13.27
Width (cm) 7.44
Date 750 – 480 BCE
Thickness (cm) 4.9
Weight (kg) 0.241
Description Handmade figurine, broken mid-torso, depicting a standing male votary. The figure wears a conical helmet, with shoulder-length hair flaring out from beneath the back, and a chiton with long sleeves and a V-neck collar (with slight traces of red paint). The standing figure holds the proper left arm bent across the chest, folded in a himation, with fist clenched; the right arm hangs to the side. Applied pellet ears, an applied large nose, and a long rectangular beard distinguish the face of the figure. Slight traces of black pigment outline the eyes and color the beard, while red pigment denotes the mouth. The back of the figurine is smoothed flat, with traces of the coroplast’s fingerprints faintly preserved (but not visible in the 3D model). The fabric is very pale brown (10YR 7/4); interior fabric at break is darker pink (5YR 7/4) with small- to medium-size deep purple inclusions. Slight traces of light wash.
Commentary This figurine depicts an unarmed votary wearing a conical helmet (sometimes referred to as a conical cap; for discussion, see Karageorghis 1993: 86–87; Törnkvist 1972: 21–32). Male robed votaries are among the oldest type of votive art in Cyprus, influenced from Assyrian iconography (for discussion of chitons with himations, or mantles, see Hermary and Mertens 2015: 28; Karageorghis 1993: 82–85). Robed votaries first appear in Cyprus around the middle of the seventh century BCE in terracotta and iconography was adopted by limestone sculptors at the end of the century (Hermary and Mertens 2015: 28). The type depicts men (most bearded) wearing a chiton with fringed himation that covers the right shoulder, with one arm bent to the chest in a gesture of prayer or adoration (the Malloura example with left bent arm is unusual; cf. AAP-AM-1574 in limestone). The headdresses worn are varied. The conical helmet references a military status, but in this context, it is likely more honorific than overtly militaristic due to lack of other martial attributes (arms and armor). Later, unbearded types also proliferate. Antoine Hermary (2015: 28) argues that the type originally represented princes and dignitaries as pious votaries. Terracotta figurines wearing conical helmets, however, are most commonly armed or engaged in activities associated with war, such as riding horses or chariots (Karageorghis 1995: 34–37, 61–97, 100–120); unarmed examples in clay, such as this figurine, are rare. There are, however, some conical-helmeted men depicted performing ritual duties, such as bringing offerings like animals or vessels.
Bibliography Unpublished
Sketchfab Media URL
Suggested Citation

Derek Counts, Erin Averett, Kevin Garstki. (2020) "AAP-AM-4653 from Europe/Cyprus/Athienou-Malloura". In Visualizing Votive Practice: Exploring Limestone and Terracotta Sculpture from Athienou-Malloura through 3D Models. Derek B. Counts, Erin Walcek Averett, Kevin Garstki, Michael Toumazou (Ed). Released: 2020-07-28. Open Context. <> ARK (Archive):

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