In 1991, a master grid system was established for the entire site of Poggio Civitate. A baseline was created running east-west, through Piano del Tesoro and into the Civitate A and B areas of the site. While shooting this baseline, several semi-elliptical rock formations were revealed in Civitate B. Some of these formations were excavated in 1991, 1992, 1996, and 2005 in order to better understand their nature and their relationship to other known architectural features. While the material recovered was scarce, all the features were clearly intentional. Based on the size and shape of these rock features and the little pottery found inside some of the rock features, most appear to be small tombs They are dateable to the 6th century BCE (see TT I in 1991, EN IV in 1992, JAL I in 1996 for features that appear to have been Archaic pit tombs, excavations done by JPB IV and ARN IV in 2005 were not conclusive).
In 2010, landowners cleared much of the vegetation from Civitate B allowing for broad excavations over an area that has produced sporadic surface finds but that is topographically higher than Piano del Tesoro. Therefore it is impossible that the materials recovered from the surface or during the previously limited excavations of Civitate B could have eroded there. Instead, the ancient material must be
the result of primary deposition, indicating that this part of the site was inhabited contemporaneously with Piano del Tesoro.
While many of the trenches did not contain any sign of occupation (e.g. CB 36- ARR I , CB 37- DWM III , CB 43- AEG III ), several have presented interesting and confusing primary deposits. CB 35 and CB 39 revealed the presence of an archaic period lens (see KRK V and ARR II ). Additionally, CB 38 uncovered a strange deposit of dark clay-like soil rich in organic material surrounded by the typically sterile yellow soil of Civitate B(see FGT I ). In 2011, CB 50 and CB 42 further defined the edges of the deposit in CB 38 (see JKW I and CO VI ), although the overall horizontal extent of the deposit is still not understood. CB 44 revealed a large deposit with many fragments of architectural terracottas, however the complete horizontal or vertical extents were not fully defined by the end of the 2011 season (see AJC II ).
In 1969, Steven Wright excavated in the Civitate C area, while this work revealed evidence of possible occupation, nothing was found in context ( SW/NW I 1969 ). Several recent trenches also failed to reveal any other signs of occupations (see CC-8 Â– AMA/CGM II and CC-9 - CGM I ). However, in 2007 CC7, a trench located a few meters
north of WrightÂ’s area of work, was opened ( KGM I ). Here an oval concentration of carbon rich soil capped with small rocks, approximately 8-10 cm in size, was found. The horizontal extent was revealed in 2007 ( KGM I and JAH/JLL II ). During the 2008 and 2009 seasons the fill of the deposit was excavated. Large fragments of ceramic vessels, bones, weaving implements, and a concentration of Murex shells were recovered from the fill, and at the end of 2009 it was interpreted that the feature was an intentionally excavated, filled, and capped midden contemporaneous with the early phase of the Orientalizing workshop (see AJC/ARR I and AJC/ARR II ).
Because of the clear evidence of occupation in Civitate B revealed by CB 35, 38, 39, 42, 44 and 50 and in Civitate C by CC 7, the 2012 season will focus on the eastern area of Civitate B between the two areas of past excavation, south of the medieval road, and ~50 meters from the Archaic building. CB 54 will be opened in conjunction with CB 52, 53, 55, 56, and 57 in an open excavation with no baulk-walls between the adjoining trenches. This should allow for a more complete picture of any stratigraphy or deposits in the area. Since CB 54 is lower than the surrounding areas, extra consideration will be taken for erosional forces acting on the landscape.
The goals of CB 54 for the 2012 season will be:
1. To search for evidence of non-elite habitation on the western area of the hill in association with the previous architecture and deposits of the area.
2. To search for new architectural, stratigraphic, and topographic information for an area of the hill that has had little previous excavation.
3. To recover dateable material from a secure context to better understand the occupation period of Civitate B.
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