Open Context

Descriptive Variable Value(s)
Layer Date Start 900
Layer Date Start Suffix BC
Layer Date End 300
Layer Date End Suffix AD
Publictation Status Published
Publictation Year 2016
Definition Post-abandonment colluvial layer
Formation Process Accumulation
Layer Date Observations latest finds can be dated to 4th century CE, but probably are most likely 3rd century CE
Stratigraphic Reliability Poor
Stratigraphic Unit Type Natural
Elevation Maximum 64.0
Elevation Minimum 63.0
In Cross Section False
In Elevation Drawing False
Has Photos True
Has Photosmodels False
Clay 30.0
Silt 70.0
Soil Matrix Granular
Soil Compation Friable
Soil Color Brown
Position Entire sector
Shape Covers excavation area
Layer Surface Slight slope to south and east
Layer Inclusion Observations Increases in depth to south and east
Layer Interface Diffuse
Structure Description Interface is sharp to south of area B, diffuse to north. Excavated by mattock and shovel, variable weather conditions but generally hot and dry. Special finds 30 and 39 (spear tip). Significant plough damage present on surface of layer. 200+ wheelbarrows removed.
Finds Observations fineware: at least 2 cup of same kind; etrusco-corinthian: 1 rim on an arybalos; creamware: +1 lid; 1 fragment of wall has inscription (Δ142); commonware: or mortarium; impasto chiaro sabbioso: need to verify handles; amphora: dressel 2-4; painted fineware: different kinds; terra sigillata: +9 fragments of walls, 1 rim; need to verify (eastern?); bone: many bags; bone: 1 cassetta; bone: animal; stone: pieces of a slab; stone: tools?; metal (deprecated): 2 bags (various); worked bone: 1 piece of a spindle?; 1 spatula; glass : 1 tessera, 1 game piece; plaster: 1 box of fragments (a lot painted); plaster: 1 box Update August 2015: -after selecting out well-preserved or unusual pieces, the ceramic from this layer was ceremoniously discarded in the backfill of Area B in August 2015. Its presence as "modern" intrusion in the fill is indicated by the fact that it is wrapped in geotextile and has contemporary Coca Cola cans and a labelled dust pan. (L. Banducci)
Ceramics Condition Good
Originally Filled Date 2009-06-30
Originally Entered Date 2010-07-13
Record Revised Date 2016-04-26
Interpretation Post-abandonment colluvial silting, covering entire excavation area. Has been cut by a (late antique?) phase of funerary activity - small cemetery - to the west of area B, and was found to seal an earlier phase of burial activity within the center-south of the area. Interface with SU1032 sharp to south of site, with underlying burial SU1027 and vessel SU1033 showing significant truncation. This may suggest that layer SU1016 represents a mixture of colluvial silting and plough soil accumulation. *Defined in 2009 and continued in 2010
Descriptive Variable Value(s)
Ceramics Class
African Cookware (rims count) 15
African Cookware (bases count) 2
African Cookware (walls count) 5
African Cookware (total count) 22
African Red Slip (rims count) 3
African Red Slip (walls count) 9
African Red Slip (total count) 12
Amphora (rims count) 13
Amphora (handles count) 15
Amphora (bases count) 1
Amphora (walls count) 663
Amphora (total count) 692
Attic Black Figure (walls count) 1
Attic Black Figure (total count) 1
Attic Black Gloss (rims count) 2
Attic Black Gloss (total count) 2
Black Gloss (rims count) 123
Black Gloss (handles count) 3
Black Gloss (bases count) 40
Black Gloss (walls count) 274
Black Gloss (total count) 440
Bucchero (rims count) 7
Bucchero (handles count) 7
Bucchero (bases count) 2
Bucchero (walls count) 13
Bucchero (total count) 29
Commonware (rims count) 473
Commonware (handles count) 61
Commonware (bases count) 121
Commonware (walls count) 1600
Commonware (total count) 2255
Creamware (rims count) 79
Creamware (handles count) 36
Creamware (bases count) 54
Creamware (walls count) 762
Creamware (total count) 931
Etrusco-corinthian (rims count) 1
Etrusco-corinthian (total count) 1
Fineware (rims count) 8
Fineware (walls count) 2
Fineware (total count) 10
Impasto (rims count) 5
Impasto (handles count) 2
Impasto (bases count) 2
Impasto (walls count) 26
Impasto (total count) 35
Impasto Chiaro Sabbioso (rims count) 17
Impasto Chiaro Sabbioso (handles count) 5
Impasto Chiaro Sabbioso (bases count) 7
Impasto Chiaro Sabbioso (walls count) 128
Impasto Chiaro Sabbioso (total count) 157
Impasto Rosso (rims count) 34
Impasto Rosso (handles count) 3
Impasto Rosso (bases count) 6
Impasto Rosso (walls count) 111
Impasto Rosso (total count) 154
Internal Red Slip Ware (rims count) 13
Internal Red Slip Ware (bases count) 1
Internal Red Slip Ware (walls count) 6
Internal Red Slip Ware (total count) 20
Italo Megarian (rims count) 1
Italo Megarian (walls count) 4
Italo Megarian (total count) 5
Lamp (total count) 53
Large Storage Container (rims count) 2
Large Storage Container (walls count) 8
Large Storage Container (total count) 10
Overpainted Black Gloss (walls count) 3
Overpainted Black Gloss (total count) 3
Painted Fineware (rims count) 39
Painted Fineware (handles count) 4
Painted Fineware (bases count) 8
Painted Fineware (walls count) 6
Painted Fineware (total count) 117
Spindle Whorl (total count) 1
Spool (total count) 2
Tegula (total count) 358
Terra Sigillata (rims count) 35
Terra Sigillata (bases count) 17
Terra Sigillata (walls count) 96
Terra Sigillata (total count) 148
Thin Walled (rims count) 30
Thin Walled (handles count) 2
Thin Walled (bases count) 2
Thin Walled (walls count) 97
Thin Walled (total count) 131
Unguentarium (rims count) 3
Unguentarium (bases count) 1
Unguentarium (walls count) 23
Unguentarium (total count) 27
Descriptive Variable Value(s)
Botany Flotation Volume 0.0
Descriptive Variable Value(s)
Anthropic Soil Inclusions
  • Metal, Medium
  • Other, Rare
  • Tiles, Medium
  • Amphorae, Frequent
  • Mosaic Tile, Medium
  • Mortar, Rare
  • Coins, Rare
  • Glass, Medium
  • Nails, Medium
  • Marble, Rare
  • Slag, Rare
  • Brick, Medium
  • Painted Plaster, Medium
  • Pottery
Geologic Soil Inclusions
  • Tufo, Frequent
  • Silt
  • Pebbles
  • Travertine, Medium
  • Gravel
  • Basalt, Rare
Organic Soil Inclusions
  • Charcoal, Medium
  • Ash
  • Animal Bones, Frequent
  • Shells, Rare
  • Animal Teeth, Frequent
Anthropic Soil Inclusion Details
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 226]
    Class: Metal, Frequency: Medium
    Soil Inclusion Details
    delta101 - iron ring; delta118 iron circle
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 299]
    Class: Other, Frequency: Rare
    Soil Inclusion Details
    delta110 - loom weight, sqaure
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 310]
    Class: Other, Frequency: Rare
    Soil Inclusion Details
    delta93 - bronze ring; delta96 - bronze pointed utensil; delta119 - bronze applicator; delta128 - small bronze ring
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 311]
    Class: Other, Frequency: Rare
    Soil Inclusion Details
    delta99 - bone pin
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 2094]
    Class: Tiles, Frequency: Medium
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 2355]
    Class: Amphorae, Frequency: Frequent
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 2623]
    Class: Mosaic Tile, Frequency: Medium
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 2677]
    Class: Mortar, Frequency: Rare
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 2772]
    Class: Coins, Frequency: Rare
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 3052]
    Class: Glass, Frequency: Medium
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 3234]
    Class: Nails, Frequency: Medium
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 3269]
    Class: Marble, Frequency: Rare
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 3338]
    Class: Slag, Frequency: Rare
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 3422]
    Class: Brick, Frequency: Medium
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 3583]
    Class: Painted Plaster, Frequency: Medium
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 7619]
    Class: Pottery, Frequency: [Not recorded]
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
Geologic Soil Inclusion Details
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 3844]
    Class: Tufo, Frequency: Frequent
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 8615]
    Class: Silt, Frequency: [Not recorded]
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 4526]
    Class: Travertine, Frequency: Medium
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 8640]
    Class: Pebbles, Frequency: [Not recorded]
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 4615]
    Class: Basalt, Frequency: Rare
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 8666]
    Class: Gravel, Frequency: [Not recorded]
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
Organic Soil Inclusion Details
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 8725]
    Class: Ash, Frequency: [Not recorded]
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 5691]
    Class: Charcoal, Frequency: Medium
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 6518]
    Class: Animal Bones, Frequency: Frequent
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 6891]
    Class: Shells, Frequency: Rare
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
  • Soil Inclusion Class and Frequency [Record: 7351]
    Class: Animal Teeth, Frequency: Frequent
    Soil Inclusion Details
    [No details]
Property or Relation Value(s)
Temporal Coverage
[Standard: Dublin Core Terms]
Editorial Note

Open Context editors work with data contributors to annotate datasets to shared vocabularies, ontologies, and other standards using 'Linked Open Data' (LOD) methods.

The annotations presented above approximate some of the meaning in this contributed data record to concepts defined in shared standards. These annotations are provided to help make datasets easier to understand and use with other datasets.

Suggested Citation

Rachel Opitz, Marcello Mogetta, Nicola Terrenato. "Unit 1016 from Italy/Gabii/Area B". (2017) In The Gabii Project. Rachel Opitz, Marcello Mogetta, Nicola Terrenato (Eds.) . Released: 2017-06-04. Open Context. <http://opencontext.org/subjects/2562ba6f-4ff8-4bc6-82f5-b7c5df8cd165>

Editorial Status

●●●○○
Managing editor reviewed

Part of Project

The Gabii Project

Mapping Data

Copyright License

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