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Tesoro 18 - Northern Extension - Pottery

EDITORIAL NOTE: THIS BOOK DETAILS THE PROCESS OF CONSERVATION OF NUMEROUS EXAMPLES OF CERAMICS FROM THE TESORO TRENCH 18 NORTH EXTENSION EXCAVATIONS OF 1972. AS A RESULT, THIS BOOK IS NOT A STANDARD DAILY TRENCH EXCAVATION LOG, BUT RATHER A LIST OF CERAMIC FINDS FORPM THE AREA AFTER CONSERVATION. THEREFORE, THIS DIGITIAL BOOK LOG WILL BE PRESENBTED AS A SINGLE DAY ENTRY. SEE BELOW FOR INFORMATION REGARDING THE DAILY EXCAVATION LOGS OF THESE MATERIALS.

Table of Contents

Page #

POTTERY Trench 18 North Extension

This book contains the pottery finds from the North Extension of Tesoro Trench 18 which was excavated in August, 1972. The trench reports can be found in JN Book I , pp. 163-190 (See plan, p. 184; summary pp. 188-190). All the pottery came from the area designated as the North Extension of Trench 18, grids J-M 28-30. It was all found in a reddish stratum mixed with heavy carbon. This stratum lies approx. 90-110 cm below topsoil and approx. 10-15 cm below the surface of the wall foundations defining this area. The pottery was found in extremely heavy concentration and is almost exclusively bucchero, burned brown or orange. The majority of fine molded handles were found in grids K-L 30 directly above a heavy carbon layer which is possibly a burned wooden beam. Grids J-L 28-29 and J 30 produced primarily undecorated stemmed bowls. Grids M 28-30 were not excavated because of surface rocks.

A few handles were restored and catalogued in 1972. The rest of the pottery is to be restored in 1973.

Supplemental finds from bulk bone from T18 1972, found in magazzino.  Analysis by Sarah Kansa in 2012.

( )

FINDS:

19720278

Bucchero Handle (?) Fragment

Location: Trench 18 Grid J 30 Red Layer

Square plaque preserving a raised frame on three sides; potnia theron in center facing right with feet to left, holds two long-necked birds in outstretched hands; the potnia is winged and wears a plain skirt which stops above her ankles. Entire back slivered away; broken along bottom. Burned brown.

-Square plaque has been joined to a series of rim fragments which appear to form part of a cup with everted rim. The plaque forms part of a short horizontal handle.

19720508

19720508
  • Find # 2
  • Bucchero Cup Frag.

( )

19720279

19720279

2. Bucchero Handle (?) Finial

Location: Trench 18 Grid L 30 Red Layer

Bucchero handle finial (?) in the form of a helmeted head; the helmet frames the face and preserves a large crest which has been chipped at front and back; the facial features include incised almost shaped eyes which slant up slightly at the outer corners, a nose which is abraded, and short thick lips above a heavy rounded chin. Broken at neck; burned brown.

-Joins fragment from T18 L 29

as finial above heads of two winged female figures.

-Joins to a fragmentary bowl with everted rim and scallop design on sides.

( )

19720280

19720280 19720280

Bucchero Handle

Location: Trench 18, Grid L 30 Red Layer

Double handle; joined at top and bottom; top preserves rounded knob with navel [sp?] projection, possibly serves as woman's hat.

Exterior: curved outward; attached at shoulder of vase; in the form of a winged woman standing frontally; her head is surrounded by two long tresses which extend to below her waist; she holds them in her hands, indicated by four incised lines; arms are bent.

Interior: vertical; joins rim of vase; in the form of a flat plaque, hour-glass shape, framed by a raised ridge which terminates at upper + lower corners in a circle with a raised dot in the center.

Broken at shoulder; composed of 6 fragments; burned brown; possibly burnished.

'75) The bowl has now been restored and added to the handle.

( )

19720319

Bucchero Handle

Location: Trench 18 Grid L 30 Red Layer

Fragmentary bucchero (?) handle in the form of a frontal winged woman; with 2 long tresses which she holds in her hands. Similar to 72-280 (p. 11) but not curved and form flares out below the waist.

-Handle section (interior) has been joined to a deep bowl, fluted cup. Approximately half of bowl preserved. Numerous other fragments are unjoined (stem foot and side walls) but believed to belong.

( )

19720320

19720320
19720320 19720320

Bucchero Handle

Location: Trench 18 Grid L 30 Red Layer

Fragmentary bucchero handle in the form of a frontal winged woman.

Similar to 72-319 (p. 13) but cut-out area between wings and hair is smaller and facial features are more blurred.

-To these two fragments of a winged female figure join a head of a helmeted warrior (composed of 3 fragments) which attaches above and behind the woman's head to serve as a finial.

( )

19720321

19720321
19720321 19720321

Bucchero Handle

Location: Trench 18 Grid J 30 Red Layer

Double handle; surmounted by knob

Curved section: frontal, winged woman.

Flat section: palmette plaque.

-3 fragments have been added making the attachment to a cup with everted rim.

( )

19720322

19720322
19720322

Bucchero Handle

Location: Trench 18 Grid J 30 Red Layer

Fragment preserves curved section in form of winged frontal woman preserved from the neck down (cf [sp?]. 72-321).

-Additional fragment attached below and recatalogued.

( )

19720323

19720323
19720323 19720323

Bucchero Handle

Location: Trench 18 Grid L 30 Red Layer

Fragmentary handle with two sections voluted palmette rectangular plaque female head.

-Additional fragments joined.

( )

19720324

19720324
19720324

9. Bucchero Handle

Location: Trench 18 Grid L 30 Red Layer

Fragmentary double handle preserving one female head (cf. 72-323).

-Additional fragments have been added, including finial knob above and portion of body below.

( )

19720325

19720325 19720325

Double Bucchero Handle

Location: Trench 18 Grid L 30 Red Layer

Double handle in two sections; joined at top and surmounted by large finial in the shape of a bowl.

Lotus palmette plaque

Female head; winged.

-Another fragment has been joined to the bottom fracture of the plaque.

( )

19720430

19720430

Amphora

Location: Trench 18 Northern Extension Grids K-L 30 Red Layer

Large amphora preserving two handles, round in cross-section, attached near the top of the high neck and the shoulder; a wide, flat mouth with vertical rim; rounded base. Burned gray to black in patches.

See JW Book I pp. 173-175.

19730201

12. Amphora Fragment with Incised Letters

Location: Trench 18 North Extension Red Layer

Fragment of a heavy, large vase, probably an amphora, which preserves two incised letters on the shoulder directly below the scar of the handle: (drawing)

Burned gray to black in places.

( )

19730202

19730202
19730202

13. Amphora

Location: Trench 18 North Extension

Large amphora, panathenaic shape, of fine clay, preserving complete profile from pointed, slightly rounded base surrounded by ring base, to the vertical neck with rounded lip; preserves part of one handle attached to neck; heavily burned, and heavily encrusted with wall plaster and bits of burned pottery when excavated \xe0 (photo: base before cleaning)

( )

19730193

19730193
19730193

14. Miniature Cup

Location: Trench 18 Grid M 29-30 Red Layer

Miniature cup preserving one, high, curved handle, a flat base, curved body and slightly everted rim; burned red except for small area near base which is black.

Found inside the piriform base of the amphora 19730202

19730202 19730202 . . Also JW Book III, and .

( )

19730208

19730208

15. Bucchero Lid Grid N 29 (R)

Small bucchero lid with knob; decoration on upper surface consisting of concentric incised lines. ( )

19730209

(g. 19730193 19730193 19730193 )

16. Miniature Cup Grid M 30 (R)

Small cup with flat base, short everted rim and high loop handle; impoasto/bucchero burned.

19730210

19730210 19730210

17. Stemmed Plate Grids J-K 29 (R)

Bucchero, burned red.

( )

19730212

19730212 19730212

18. Two-handled bucchero cup

Grids M 28, 29, 30 (R)

19730213

19730213 19730213

19. Stemmed plate fine impasto ware

Grids J-K 29 (red stratum)

( )

19730214

19730214
19730214 19730214

20. Stemmed plate fine impasto ware

Grids J-K 29 (red stratum)

19730215

19730215 19730215

21. Stemmed plate bucchero

Grids J-K 28-29

19730216

19730216

22. Footed bowl

impasto-buccheroid; burned orange

Grids: J 30 L 29

( )

Tesoro Trench 18

Grids M 28, 29, 30

This trench contains numerous fragments of two handled bucchero cups including the following catalogue numbers: 19730212

19730212 19730212 19730212 , 19730217
19730217
19730217 19730217 , 19730218 and 19730219
19730219
19730219 .

A count of the fragments indicates that at least 20 cups are partially preserved. For example, a count of the pieces preserving the exterior join of the handle with the base of the wall indicates the presence of 39 handles, i.e. 20 cups. A count of the pieces preserving the apex of the handle-curve indicates the presence of 38 handles, i.e. 19 cups. Also, the rim fragments can be separated into at least 22 groups on the basis of 1) the distance from the bottom of the cup's wall to the top of the rim, 2) the distance from the incised line to the top of the rim, or 3) on the nature of decorative incision itself.

The fragments are badly broken and have been burned to varying degrees from red to orange to charcoal gray.

Two cups (pieced together from many fragments) are preserved almost entirely ( 19730212 and 19730217

19730217 19730217 19730217 ) with only a few pieces missing from the rims. No. 19730218 preserved the foot, one-half of the rim, one entire handle and the join at the bottom of the wall of the other handle. No. 19730219 preserves one-half of the rim, one entire handle and the join at the rim of the other handle; the foot is missing. There are 7 other large fragments preserving various percentages of rims and entire handles.

The 2 handled cup has a flat round base with a short stem. The base of the bowl is almost flat and joins the almost vertical walls of the bowl in a ridge; the ridge is sometimes decoratively crimped. Tall, thin strap handles (which are usually concave in cross-section) are attached to the rim and to the ridge below. The walls of the bowls vary in height from 4 to 5 cm. Immediately below the rim on the exterior 2 (or 1) decorative incised rings run around the cup; often this decoration is interrupted by the handles as in 19730212

19730212 19730212 19730212 ; often the rim is left undecorated.

( )

19730217

19730217 19730217 19730217

23. Two-handled cup

Grids L 29, N 29. And M 30.

Impasto-buccheroid ware

19730218

19730218

24. Two handled cup

Grids M 29, 28, 30

Bucchero, burned orange in places

19730219

19730219 19730219

25. Two handled cup

Grids M 28, 29, 30

Bucchero, now burned tan to orange in places

( )

19730220

19730220

26. Impasto lid

Grid J 30

19730221

19730221

27. Impasto fragment

Grids L-M 29-31

19730222

19730222

28. Impasto stemmed plate

Grids J-K 29

( )

19730223

29. Small impasto bowl on tall conical foot. Flat, everted rim has a stamped guilloche design.

Grid: From the entire room excavated by JN (North Extension within the wallls).

19730224

30. Small impasto bowl on tall conical foot. Stamped guilloche design on rim.

Grid: T18 North Extension (within the walls)

19730225

31. Small impasto bowl on tall conical foot. Everted rim has a stamped guilloche design.

Grid: T18 North Extension (within the walls)

( )

19730226

19730226

32. Small impasto bowl; foot is missing. Rim has guilloche pattern.

Grid: T18 North Extension (within the walls)

19730227

19730227

33. Fragment of small impasto bowl with guilloche design on the rim. Foot, bowl-base and part of rim are missing.

Grid: T18 North Extension (within the walls)

19730228

19730228

34. Fragment of small impasto bowl with guilloche design on the rim, Foot, bowl-base, bowl-sides (1/2) and \xbd of rim are missing.

Grid: T18 North Extension (within the walls)

( )

19730229

19730229
19730229

35. Rim (impasto) with stamped guillloche design almost complete.

Grid: T18 North Extension (within walls)

19730230

19730230 19730230

36. Small impasto bowl with foot missing. The flat everted rim has a stamped guilloche pattern and 2 of a possible 3 trefoil horizontal handles are preserved.

Grid: T18 North Extension (within walls)

Tesoro Trench 18

North Extension (within the walls)

This area, excavated by Jenifer Neils in 1972, contained numerous fragments from small impasto bowls which bear a stamped guilloche design on their rims. Included are the following catalogue numbers: 19730223 to 19730230

19730230 19730230 19730230 .

The fragments, which are badly broken and burned to varying degrees from red to black, belong to small impasto bowls on high conical feet (cf: 19730223 and 19730224 for the complete shape). The bowls have gradually sloping sides which somewhere near the top turn sharply upward and rise almost vertically for a short distance and then turn outward to form flat, everted rims. The rims (from 0.018m to 0.022m wide) are stamped with a guilloche design (0.01m wide) at varying distances from the interior and exterior edges. The design consists of two concentric rings of ovals which have been placed end to end and have dots in their interiors; these two rings are then joined by vertical lines and a dot is placed in between the lines. The exterior edge of the rim can be either rounded ( 19730237

19730237
19730237 ) or squared ( 19730229 19730229 19730229 ). Or the rim can project outward at a regular interval (i.e. 3 times per rim) to form horizontal, trefoil shaped handles. These handles (cf: 19730230 19730230 19730230 19730230 ) are decorated with a pattern composed of a double volute with vertical striations below it.

A count of the fragments indicates that at least 24 bowls are represented. For example, the rim fragments with a squared edge can be separated into at least 5 distinct groups; those with a rounded edge can be divided into 9 groups; and fragments of at least 30 trefoil handles are preserved.

( )

19730231

19730231
19730231

37. Impasto footed bowl with vertical rim burned orange to black

Grid: J-K 28-30

19730232

19730232
19730232

38. Impasto footed bowl burned orange to black

Grid: J-K 29

19730233

19730233
19730233

39. Impasto bowl with vertical rim on a gently sloping foot with a short stem

Grid: J-K 29

J 30

L 29

( )

19730234

19730234
19730234

40. Fragment of an impasto bowl with vertical rim. The foot is missing and only its stem is preserved.

T18 North Extension (within the walls)

Impasto-orange

19730235

19730235
19730235

41. Fragment of an impasto bowl preserving the foot; but the rim is missing. Impasto: orange and black

Grid: North Extension (within walls)

19730236

19730236
19730236

42. Impasto footed bowl on flat base with a short stem. Impasto: brown to black.

Grid: North Extension (within the walls)

( )

19730237

19730237 19730237

43. Impasto bowl with steep sides; the lip consists of a vertical flange (triangular in section) set on the diagonal, coming to a sharp point.

Impasto - orange and grey

Grids: J-K and L 29

19730238

19730238

44. Bucchero lid with knob handle and very shallow flange.

Grid north extension (within the walls)

Bucchero - black, now burned light brown in places.

19730239

19730239 19730239

45. Impasto fluted cup on a short foot.  The cup has a high handle with a figure on it.

Grid: north extension (within the walls)

Impasto: orange to black

( )

19730240

19730240

46. Small impasto bowl on a ring base with a rounded everted rim.

Impasto burned orange to black

Grid: T18 J29 and M30

19730241

19730241
19730241 19730241

47. Stemmed plate fragment - rim is almost complete but foot is entirely missing

Impasto: orange

burned

North extension (within the walls)

19730242

19730242
19730242 19730242

48. Stemmed plate - entire profile preserved and foot is complete

Impasto: burned orange to black

North ext. (within the walls)

Ten Rim Variants for "Steep-sided bowls"

Tesoro Trench 18

North Extension (within the walls)

This room excavated by Jennifer Neils yielded many fragments belonging to impasto bowls with steep sides including catalogue 19730237 which is the only piece preserving the entire profile from rim to base.  The bowls stand on sloping feet and have steeply slanted walls.  The lip consists of a vertical flange which is set at a diagonal to the walls and is triangular in cross-section.  The fragments from these bowls are badly broken and burned to varying degrees from orange to black; several are heavily encrusted.  Since very few of the preserved rim fragments join to produce any rim sections of notable circumference and since the lower body pieces are virtually indistinguishable from those belonging to the stemmed plates, it is impossible to make an accurate estimate of the number of bowls represented by the excavated fragments.  The rim fragments can, however, be separated into several types of the basis of 1) width of rim, 2) angle between rim and walls of bowl, 3) thickness of walls of bowl.  Based on these criteria, 10 rim variants can be identified; these 10 groups, therefore, plus the catalogued fragment mentioned above give a minimum of 11 vessels of this type in this area.

Tesoro Trench 18

North Extension (within the walls)

This room excavated by Jenifer Neils yielded many fragments belonging to impasto bowls including catalogue number 19730216

19730216 19730216 , 19730231 19730231 19730231 , 19730232 19730232 19730232 , 19730233 19730233 19730233 , 19730234 19730234 19730234 , 19730235 19730235 19730235 , 19730236 19730236 19730236 .  These bowls have vertical rims which join the sides of the bowls at a sharp angle which is often marked by a prominent ridge.  The sides of the bowls slope sharply; the bowls stand on flat bases with short stems.  The fragments are badly broken, burned and encrusted.  Due to the large number of preserved fragments and their similarity, an estimate of the number of vessels represented could not be made.  Instead the rim fragments were separated into variant groups on the bases of 1) thickness of rim, 2) height of tim, 3) profile of ridge and 4) angle between rim and bowl sides.  Only those fragments preserving all 4 criteria, therefore, were considered, and 18 variants were identified.  These 18 groups plus the 7 catalogued bowls mentioned above gives a minimum number of 25 vessels.

( )

19730243

19730243
19730243 19730243

49. Stemmed plate fragment - half of rim preserved, foot is missing.

Impasto: burned orange to black

North ext (within the walls)

19730244

19730244
19730244 19730244

50. Stemmed plate fragment - most of rim preserved, foot is missing

Impasto: burned orange to black

North extenstion (within the walls)

19730245

19730245
19730245 19730245

51. Stemmed plate fragment - two thirds of rim preserved, most of foot preserved.

Impasto: burned orange to black

North extension (within the walls) (J-K 28-29)

19730246

19730246

52. Stemmed plate fragment.  Entire profile preserved

Impasto: burned orange to black

T18 J-K 28-29

19730247

19730247
19730247

53. Stemmed plate fragment.  Approximately half of plate and rim is missing

Impasto: orange

T18 J-K 28-29

19730248

19730248
19730248

54. Stemmed plate fragment - approximately half to two third of plate and rim are missing

Impasto: burned orange to black

T18 J-K 29, J-M 28

19730249

19730249
19730249

55. Stemmed plate fragment.  Entire profile is preserved at only one spot - three quarters of vessel is missing.

Impasto: orange

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730250

19730250 19730250

56. Stemmed plate fragment with few missing from rim and plate sides

Impasto: burned orange to black

T18, J-K 28-29

19730251

19730251
19730251 19730251

57. Stemmed plate with few pieces missing from rim, plate-sides, and foot.

Impasto - burned orange to black

T18, J-K 28-29

Tesoro Trench 18

North Extension (within the walls)

This room, which was excavated by Jenifer Neils in 1972, yielded many fragments belonging to stemmed plates including the following catalogue numbers: 19730210

19730210 19730210 19730210 , 19730213 19730213 19730213 19730213 , 19730214 19730214 19730214 19730214 , 19730215 19730215 19730215 19730215 , 19730241 19730241 19730241 19730241 , 19730242 19730242 19730242 19730242 , 19730243 19730243 19730243 19730243 , 19730244 19730244 19730244 19730244 , 19730245 19730245 19730245 19730245 , 19730246 19730246 19730246 , 19730247 19730247 19730247 , 19730248 19730248 19730248 , 19730249 19730249 19730249 , 19730250 19730250 19730250 19730250 , 19730251 19730251 19730251 19730251 , 19730252
19730252
19730252 19730252 , 19730253
19730253
19730253 19730253 , 19730254
19730254
19730254 19730254 , 19730255
19730255
19730255 19730255 .

These plates have rounded sloping walls and a rather shallow bowl.  They stand on flat bases with short stems.  They have wide, everted rims of varying widths and profiles; some have a very rounded, curved profile while others are virtually flat.

The preserved fragments are badly broken and burned to varying degrees from orange to charcoal grey.  Several are heavily encrusted.

Well over 1,000 fragments were excavated which preserved a section of the rim from these plates.  Due to the large numbers involved, an estimate of the number of vessels represented by these fragments could not feasibly be made.  Instead all of the preserved fragments with the exterior section of the rim were measured.  Then those plates which had been restored to preserved at least two thirds of the original circumference were measured to determine the average circumference for these stemmed plates.  The total measurement of rim section was then deivded by this average circumference to determine the minimum number of vessels represented by these fragments.

Measured/Reconstructed Circum. of Catalogued Plates: (in cm)

19730210

19730210 19730210 19730210 : 55 19730214 19730214 19730214 19730214 : 56 19730215 19730215 19730215 19730215 : 54

19730213

19730213 19730213 19730213 : 59 19730241 19730241 19730241 19730241 : 56 19730242 19730242 19730242 19730242 : 57

19730243

19730243 19730243 19730243 : 57 19730244 19730244 19730244 19730244 : 56 19730245 19730245 19730245 19730245 : 60

19730250

19730250 19730250 19730250 : 58 19730251 19730251 19730251 19730251 : 57 19730252 19730252 19730252 19730252 : 56

19730253

19730253 19730253 19730253 : 57 19730254 19730254 19730254 19730254 : 56 19730255 19730255 19730255 19730255 : 57

Average Circumference of Stemmed Plates: 56.7 cm

Total cm of Rim Preserved by All Fragments: 4,279.5 cm

Minimum Number of Stemmed Plates Represented by these Fragments: 4,279.5/56.7 equals 75.4 plates or 76 plates.

19730252

19730252 19730252 19730252

58. Stemmed plate with large section missing from plate-sides

Impasto: burned orange to black

T-18 J-K 28-29

19730253

19730253 19730253 19730253

59. Stemmed plate with small section of rim missing

Impasto: burned orange to black

T-18 J-K 28-29

19730254

19730254 19730254 19730254

60. Stemmed plate with one-third of rim missing

Impasto: red to black

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730255

19730255 19730255 19730255

61. Stemmed plate one third of rim and plate-sides are missing and half of foot is missing.

Impasto: burned orange to black.

T18, L-29, N-29, 0-28-29.

19730256

19730256

62. Fluted cup portions missing from rim, sides and cup base; no handle.

Impasto: burned orange to black

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730257

19730257

63. Cut with high everted rim and deep bowl portions missing from sides and rim as well as almost entire handle.

Impasto: burned orange to black

T18, North extensions (within the walls)

19730258

19730258
19730258

64. Cup with scalloped decoration portions missing from rim and sides, handle. Entire stemmed foot gone.

Impasto: burned orange to brown

T18, North extension (within the walls)

One fragment marked with grid J-30

19730259

19730259 19730259

65. Small cup with everted rim portion sides missing, about half the rim absent. Half of handle intact.

Impasto: burned orange to black

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730260

19730260

66. Fragmentary cup all of rim intact except for two small sections. Over half of sides and cup base absent. Stem missing. Only small portion of handle remains on the rim.

Impasto: burned orange to black

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730261

19730261
19730261 19730261

67. Double handle, fragmentary exterior (curved) section broken at attachment to vase; non-curved or interior section broken 0.05m down from top.

Impasto: burned orange to black

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730262

19730262
19730262 19730262

68. Curved (outside) section of a double handle, fragmentary preserves join at top; broken below 0.072m from top

Impasto: burned orange to black

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730263

19730263

69. Handle fragment small sliver preserving lower section of handle and rim.

Impasto: burned brown to black

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730264

19730264

70. Small bowl, fragmentary portions of side walls including rim are missing; foot or stem absent.

Impasto: burned brown to black

T18, North extension (within the walls)

Tesoro Trench 18

North Extension (within the walls)

This room, excavated by Jenifer Neils, in 1972, produced numerous fragments and complete pieces which reveal a particular double handle type, labelled here "double handles with exterior palmette plaque." The pieces in question include the following catalogue numbers: 19720323 (handle), 19720324 (handle fragment), 19730259 (small cup with everted rim), 19730260 (cup with straight rim), 19730261 (handle fr.), 19730262

19730262 19730262 19730262 (handle fr.), 19730263 (handle sliver), 19730277 (cup with everted rim) and four small uncatalogued fragments.

This handle type is reconstructed primarily from 19730259

19730259 19730259 19730259 , 19720323 19720323 19720323 19720323 , and 19730261 19730261 19730261 19730261 . It consists of two parts joined at the top, which is crowned by a round cone-like knob of two layers. The interior section is straight and is attached to the cup at the rim. It is adorned with a moulded female figure, viewed frontally, waist up. The face, in higher relief than the body, has large, almond-shaped eyes, a broad, flat nose, thick lips, and a distinct, protruding chin. The top of the forehead is bordered across by a straight band, the sides of the head by long tresses slashed with short, diagonal incisions. These tresses drape down vertically across the chest to the waist, the distance between each gradually diminishing towards the bottom. Near the bottom 2 arms extend diagonally from the lateral edges, bending at the elbow. Each hand clutches a tress; the fingers are indicated by four incisions. Outside the tresses are wings, which originate at the waist and gradually widen as they proceed toward the top until they stop at the horizontal plane formed by the eyes. The outside section of the handle is curved and joins the vase at the shoulder. It is flat on the exterior and adorned with a moulded plaque consisting of 6 palmettes framed in heart-shaped volutes, in such a way as to form a vertical row, intertwining and stacking one upon the other. The topmost palmette is framed only by a half volute. This plaque is bordered ont he lateral sides by two ridges, distinctly separated by a incised groove which continues past the lower margins of the panel and extends to the area where the handle is attached to the shoulder.

Three important points may be made regarding this double handle type:

  1. The majority of the pieces preserved are badly broken and burned to various shades of black to brown to orange. However, 19720324 and 19720323 are definitely bucchero; the remaining pieces are composed of a fine-grain clay. It is then safe to conclude that we are dealing with a handle type associated with fine pottery, specifically bucchero; the brown to orange coloring of the clay is due to burning.

  2. The handles are made from moulds. 19720323 and 19730261 have identical designs and corresponding measurements. 19720324 is an interesting variation of this type, with small cut-out areas between the wings and tresses similar to the next handle type represented by 19720280 19720280 19720280 19720280 . However, the female figure of the type in question has one unique characteristic which seems to differentiate it from the winged figures of the 19720280 type: the tresses are rather narrow and all are articulated with diagonal slashes, thus closely resembling braids; the next handle type represented by 19720280 has wide, flat tresses, each divided by a vertical incision. Consequently, 19720324 belongs to our first type, but with a very clear variation. Of course, the major question remains: are these all local products, or is this 19720280 perfhaps a local variation of an imported product, or are these all imported?
  3. The handle may be interchanged from one cup type to another. 19730277 and 19730259 are derivations of the Ionic bowl type with everted rim, while 19730260 shows a straight rim.

From the material preserved, we are dealing with a minimum of 6 pieces bearing this handle type: 19730259

19730259 19730259 19730259 , 19730261 19730261 19730261 19730261 , 19730262 19730262 19730262 19730262 , 19730277
19730277
19730277 , 19720323 19720323 19720323 19720323 , and 19720324 19720324 19720324 . 19730260 may join with any handle fragments remaining, while 19730263 may belong with one of the exterior sections remaining.

19730265

19730265 19730265

71. Bucchero cup stem intact except for one small chip at base. Portions missing from cup-sides, including about one-third of rim. Interior section of handle intact; exterior secion, only face.

Bucchero burned brown to black

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730266

19730266
19730266 19730266

72. Fragmentary Impasto Handle preserves interior, hourglass shaped section of a double handle with portion of cup rim. Broken at top join with exterior part, below at rim.

Impasto burned brown to black

T18. Grid K-30

19730267

19730267
19730267

73. Fragmentary Impasto Handle, preserving interior section broken at top join with exterior part; below, just above rim.

Impasto burned brown to orange

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730268

19730268
19730268 19730268

74. Fragmentary Impasto Handle: preserves exterior section broken above neck; attached below the fragment of vase.

Impasto: burned orange to black

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730269

19730269
19730269 19730269

75. Exterior section of an impasto double handle broken above at neck level of woman, broken below at join at vase.

Impasto: burned orange

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730270

19730270
19730270 19730270

76. Exterior section of an impasto double handle: broken above at neck level of woman; broken below, just about join to vase.

Impasto burned brown to orange.

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730271

19730271 19730271

77. Impasto handle fragment preserves lower portion of the interior section of a double handle where it was attached to vase at rim.

Impasto burned brown

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730272

19730272
19730272

78. Impasto handle fragment fragment of an exterior section of a double handle; middle body of moulded female figure.

Impasto burned orange and grey

T18, North extension (within the walls)

19730273