Open Context

A7 Bakeries [A7-B]

One of the early areas to be excavated by AERA at Heit el-Ghurab (1991), 1 this bakery building was discovered in what was, at that date, Square A7, and was the first of its kind to be discovered in Egypt. This building lies in the eastern end of Gallery Set IV. The bakery is thought to be the oldest "industrial" scale bakery found in Egypt, almost perfectly duplicating what is found in Old Kingdom baking scenes in tomb reliefs. Unlike smaller baking facilities in houses, in which only a handful of small loaves could be produced at one time, this complex appears to have been designed to mass-produce bread in typical Old Kingdom style bedja ceramic molds, most likely in order to supply the inhabitants of the gallery complex. 2 There were large vats for mixing dough, and stacks of molds in a corner. One of the most distinctive features of the bakeries is a thick layer of black ash, with a series of "egg carton-like" indentations into which the bread molds would have been placed. The ceramic molds were buried in the hot ash beds, each covered by a heated mold that served as a lid, forming a miniature oven for each loaf of bread. This thick layer of ash was termed "black velvet" due to the fact that most charred plant items had almost totally broken down to a fine powder.



Area A (Pedestal Building) [AA]

When AERA first began excavations on the Giza Plateau, Mark Lehner outlined two areas in which he suspected there may be settlement remains. Area A, south of the Wall of the Crow, and Area B, the so-called "Kromer" dump to the west of the Gebel el-Qibli.

Since then, the areas first explored in 1988 have retained the Area A designation – hence AA (and the A7 Bakeries), and the areas which immediately adjoin AA; AA-S, FS1 and AA-FS. 3

In Area AA the team discovered what has become known as "the Pedestal Building," the precise function of which remains somewhat mysterious. The building contains a series of pedestals 50–70 cm wide, 75–120 cm long, and around 55–65 cm high, placed next to each other, with around 9–17 cm gaps between them. Many of the pedestals retain traces of plaster covering a small "ledge" on the top, suggesting that something may have been placed bridging the gaps between these platforms. In some cases a ceramic jar (form AB, a so-called "beer" jar) was found placed upright on the ground, nestled in these gaps. 4

During the AERA-ARCE 2005–2007 Field Schools, Area AA was expanded to the east (FS1), 5 and then again to the north in the 2007 Field School (AA-FS), revealing an open court containing a number of ovens 6, and a bakery 7. During the 2015 Field School, AA was expanded a third time, to the south (AA-S), in order to ascertain the stratigraphic link between AA and a large house complex in the Soccer Field West area of site (SFW-H1, see below). AA-S contained a small complex containing an open court to the south, surrounded by a series of rooms, including a small domestic (cooking) space, a storage room, and a small closet containing two pedestals. 8



Area A Field School [AA-FS]

When AERA first began excavations on the Giza Plateau, Mark Lehner outlined two areas in which he suspected there may be settlement remains. Area A, south of the Wall of the Crow, and Area B, the so-called "Kromer" dump to the west of the Gebel el-Qibli.

Since then, the areas first explored in 1988 have retained the Area A designation – hence AA (and the A7 Bakeries), and the areas which immediately adjoin AA; AA-S, FS1 and AA-FS. 3

In Area AA the team discovered what has become known as "the Pedestal Building," the precise function of which remains somewhat mysterious. The building contains a series of pedestals 50–70 cm wide, 75–120 cm long, and around 55–65 cm high, placed next to each other, with around 9–17 cm gaps between them. Many of the pedestals retain traces of plaster covering a small "ledge" on the top, suggesting that something may have been placed bridging the gaps between these platforms. In some cases a ceramic jar (form AB, a so-called "beer" jar) was found placed upright on the ground, nestled in these gaps. 4

During the AERA-ARCE 2005–2007 Field Schools, Area AA was expanded to the east (FS1), 5 and then again to the north in the 2007 Field School (AA-FS), revealing an open court containing a number of ovens 6, and a bakery 7. During the 2015 Field School, AA was expanded a third time, to the south (AA-S), in order to ascertain the stratigraphic link between AA and a large house complex in the Soccer Field West area of site (SFW-H1, see below). AA-S contained a small complex containing an open court to the south, surrounded by a series of rooms, including a small domestic (cooking) space, a storage room, and a small closet containing two pedestals. 8



Area A South [AA-S]

When AERA first began excavations on the Giza Plateau, Mark Lehner outlined two areas in which he suspected there may be settlement remains. Area A, south of the Wall of the Crow, and Area B, the so-called "Kromer" dump to the west of the Gebel el-Qibli.

Since then, the areas first explored in 1988 have retained the Area A designation – hence AA (and the A7 Bakeries), and the areas which immediately adjoin AA; AA-S, FS1 and AA-FS. 3

In Area AA the team discovered what has become known as "the Pedestal Building," the precise function of which remains somewhat mysterious. The building contains a series of pedestals 50–70 cm wide, 75–120 cm long, and around 55–65 cm high, placed next to each other, with around 9–17 cm gaps between them. Many of the pedestals retain traces of plaster covering a small "ledge" on the top, suggesting that something may have been placed bridging the gaps between these platforms. In some cases a ceramic jar (form AB, a so-called "beer" jar) was found placed upright on the ground, nestled in these gaps. 4

During the AERA-ARCE 2005–2007 Field Schools, Area AA was expanded to the east (FS1), 5 and then again to the north in the 2007 Field School (AA-FS), revealing an open court containing a number of ovens 6, and a bakery 7. During the 2015 Field School, AA was expanded a third time, to the south (AA-S), in order to ascertain the stratigraphic link between AA and a large house complex in the Soccer Field West area of site (SFW-H1, see below). AA-S contained a small complex containing an open court to the south, surrounded by a series of rooms, including a small domestic (cooking) space, a storage room, and a small closet containing two pedestals. 8



Buttress Building (Royal Administrative Building) [BB]

This building was initially named the Buttress Building (BB) due to the discovery of walls in the north western corner that resembled a buttress. It was later renamed the Royal Administrative Building (RAB) on the basis of the discovery of numerous artifacts suggesting central administration (clay sealings and large storage facilities). The southern end of the building is covered by the Abu el-Hol soccer field, but the part of the building available for excavation has been fully investigated. 9 The RAB/BB is a large walled complex to the southeast of the galleries. There is a large open space inside the northern enclosure wall and a series of small rooms along the western wall. At least two of these rooms appear to have functioned (for at least part of the time) as baking spaces. On the south side of the open court is a walled enclosure containing a series of large storage silos/granaries, which we presume to have contained wheat and barley. In an earlier phase beneath the complex there are remains of a set of buildings with a different function and layout. 10 The areas immediately east and northwest of the RAB (BBE and BBNW) have been less extensively investigated. The access into the RAB and the storage magazines to the east was highly controlled – as was revealed by excavation in the BBNW area, where the only access into the RAB was through the eastern end of the northern enclosure wall. 11



Buttress Building East [BBE]

This building was initially named the Buttress Building (BB) due to the discovery of walls in the north western corner that resembled a buttress. It was later renamed the Royal Administrative Building (RAB) on the basis of the discovery of numerous artifacts suggesting central administration (clay sealings and large storage facilities). The southern end of the building is covered by the Abu el-Hol soccer field, but the part of the building available for excavation has been fully investigated. 9 The RAB/BB is a large walled complex to the southeast of the galleries. There is a large open space inside the northern enclosure wall and a series of small rooms along the western wall. At least two of these rooms appear to have functioned (for at least part of the time) as baking spaces. On the south side of the open court is a walled enclosure containing a series of large storage silos/granaries, which we presume to have contained wheat and barley. In an earlier phase beneath the complex there are remains of a set of buildings with a different function and layout. 10 The areas immediately east and northwest of the RAB (BBE and BBNW) have been less extensively investigated. The access into the RAB and the storage magazines to the east was highly controlled – as was revealed by excavation in the BBNW area, where the only access into the RAB was through the eastern end of the northern enclosure wall. 11



Big Backhoe Trench South [BBHT(S)]

As the name suggests, this "area" is defined by a major modern intervention (a large backhoe gouge) into the archaeological area. As is often the case in these circumstances, although highly destructive, this machine-made cut revealed some of the deeper stratigraphy of the site, which AREA has investigated. 12



Buttress Building North West [BBNW]

This building was initially named the Buttress Building (BB) due to the discovery of walls in the north western corner that resembled a buttress. It was later renamed the Royal Administrative Building (RAB) on the basis of the discovery of numerous artifacts suggesting central administration (clay sealings and large storage facilities). The southern end of the building is covered by the Abu el-Hol soccer field, but the part of the building available for excavation has been fully investigated. 9 The RAB/BB is a large walled complex to the southeast of the galleries. There is a large open space inside the northern enclosure wall and a series of small rooms along the western wall. At least two of these rooms appear to have functioned (for at least part of the time) as baking spaces. On the south side of the open court is a walled enclosure containing a series of large storage silos/granaries, which we presume to have contained wheat and barley. In an earlier phase beneath the complex there are remains of a set of buildings with a different function and layout. 10 The areas immediately east and northwest of the RAB (BBE and BBNW) have been less extensively investigated. The access into the RAB and the storage magazines to the east was highly controlled – as was revealed by excavation in the BBNW area, where the only access into the RAB was through the eastern end of the northern enclosure wall. 11



Square D17x [D17x]

Square D17 was allocated a specific area designation due to the fact that it lies at a critical juncture, providing a stratigraphic link between Gallery Set III, the buildings to the east (the west side of the hypostyle hall), and the east end of Gallery Set IV.



East of Galleries [EOG]

The excavated area of EOG runs along the east side of the galleries. There is clear evidence of faience production and large quantities of broken ceramic sherds, indicating it was an area used for industry and waste dumping. It also contained a large number of pedestals 13 and bakeries. 14 The area encompasses a number of other area codes, including BBHT(S) (see above) and the Faience Area—both smaller discrete areas in which more focused investigations took place. The Faience Area (FA) was identified as an area of faience production in 2004, within a backhoe trench cut into EOG after the initial season of excavation in that area. It runs beneath the Hypostyle Hall, and thus probably pre-dates the gallery complex. 15



Eastern Town House [ETH]

Located within the Eastern Town (which was discovered when a trench for a large modern enclosure wall was being constructed along the eastern edge of the entire Giza Plateau area 16), this one specific house was selected for a more thorough investigation in 2004–2005, 17 and was conserved and reconstructed in 2005. 18 ETH is a small "village-y" house, in a typical Old Kingdom "snail shell" form. The outer areas contain spaces for working, food production, and storage, while the inner area was a more personal space, with a bed platform in the innermost room. 19 The remains excavated from within it are particularly interesting because the house represents the only apparently traditional Egyptian village house AERA has excavated within the entire Heit el-Ghurab settlement. It is apparent that, unlike the galleries buildings, and the large house complexes in Soccer Field West (see SFW-H1), the people living here were more self-sufficient, not relying upon provisions from the state.



Faience Area [FA]

The excavated area of EOG runs along the east side of the galleries. There is clear evidence of faience production and large quantities of broken ceramic sherds, indicating it was an area used for industry and waste dumping. It also contained a large number of pedestals 13 and bakeries. 14 The area encompasses a number of other area codes, including BBHT(S) (see above) and the Faience Area—both smaller discrete areas in which more focused investigations took place. The Faience Area (FA) was identified as an area of faience production in 2004, within a backhoe trench cut into EOG after the initial season of excavation in that area. It runs beneath the Hypostyle Hall, and thus probably pre-dates the gallery complex. 15



Field School Area 1 [FS1]

When AERA first began excavations on the Giza Plateau, Mark Lehner outlined two areas in which he suspected there may be settlement remains. Area A, south of the Wall of the Crow, and Area B, the so-called "Kromer" dump to the west of the Gebel el-Qibli.

Since then, the areas first explored in 1988 have retained the Area A designation – hence AA (and the A7 Bakeries), and the areas which immediately adjoin AA; AA-S, FS1 and AA-FS. 3

In Area AA the team discovered what has become known as "the Pedestal Building," the precise function of which remains somewhat mysterious. The building contains a series of pedestals 50–70 cm wide, 75–120 cm long, and around 55–65 cm high, placed next to each other, with around 9–17 cm gaps between them. Many of the pedestals retain traces of plaster covering a small "ledge" on the top, suggesting that something may have been placed bridging the gaps between these platforms. In some cases a ceramic jar (form AB, a so-called "beer" jar) was found placed upright on the ground, nestled in these gaps. 4

During the AERA-ARCE 2005–2007 Field Schools, Area AA was expanded to the east (FS1), 5 and then again to the north in the 2007 Field School (AA-FS), revealing an open court containing a number of ovens 6, and a bakery 7. During the 2015 Field School, AA was expanded a third time, to the south (AA-S), in order to ascertain the stratigraphic link between AA and a large house complex in the Soccer Field West area of site (SFW-H1, see below). AA-S contained a small complex containing an open court to the south, surrounded by a series of rooms, including a small domestic (cooking) space, a storage room, and a small closet containing two pedestals. 8



Gallery Set I [G1]

The so-called galleries, or "barracks," form the core of the Heit el-Ghurab site. They are enclosed to the west by a large stone wall, and to the north by a monumental structure known today as the Wall of the Crow (Heit el-Ghurab in Arabic). There is an entrance in the western enclosure wall. Four sets of galleries were fully revealed during the major "millennium project," 20 each with 9–12 individual gallery buildings (numbered west-east). Most of the area has only been investigated minimally. The overall "footprint" plan was revealed by removal of the overburden layers, and a few small interventions were conducted, but Gallery Set III Buildings 3 and 4 (GIII.3, GIII.4) have been excavated along their full length. 21 Three "streets" run east-west: North Street runs between Gallery Set I and Gallery Set II; Main Street runs between Gallery Set II and Gallery Set III, terminating in the east in area MSE (see below); and South Street runs between Gallery Set IV and the South Street magazines. At the west end of each street there is a "gatehouse" (see NSGH, MSGH, and SSGH below).

Generally speaking, all of the galleries appear to have been set out following a uniform plan, even if the entrances are located in different places. Excavations in Gallery III.3 and III.4 revealed a set of smaller rooms in the south end that were apparently used for food preparation, cooking, and some small craft jobs such as (possibly) copper tool repairs, but the majority of the space in each gallery building is open, with evidence for columns (probably wooden) running along the center. In both Gallery III.3 and III.4 there was a raised bed platform near the northern door, possibly for an overseer or guard.

One hypothesis is that these spaces were used as a communal sleeping space for crews or work "gangs" of men. The identity of these crews is unknown, but over the years we have postulated that they may have been workers involved in pyramid construction, or expedition crews on their way north out of Egypt, or those crews involved in shipping goods and materials to the construction site from elsewhere in Egypt.

Gallery Set I (to the north) was heavily damaged by repeated flooding events, and during the Late Period a major cemetery grew up in this area, south of the Wall of the Crow. The full east-west extent of Gallery Set II is known but at present there has been no focused investigation other than in the far east end in the Manor (see below). Gallery Set III is the best known, due to the fact that two of the buildings, Gallery III.3 and Gallery III.4, have both been fully excavated, and in its east end the so-called Hypostyle Hall (as well as a set of small buildings between the Hypostyle Hall and Gallery Set III) have also been investigated (HH, see below). Gallery Set IV is also known only from the "footprint" plan, with the exception of the bakeries on the east end (see above, Area A7-B).



Gallery Set III [GIII]

The so-called galleries, or "barracks," form the core of the Heit el-Ghurab site. They are enclosed to the west by a large stone wall, and to the north by a monumental structure known today as the Wall of the Crow (Heit el-Ghurab in Arabic). There is an entrance in the western enclosure wall. Four sets of galleries were fully revealed during the major "millennium project," 20 each with 9–12 individual gallery buildings (numbered west-east). Most of the area has only been investigated minimally. The overall "footprint" plan was revealed by removal of the overburden layers, and a few small interventions were conducted, but Gallery Set III Buildings 3 and 4 (GIII.3, GIII.4) have been excavated along their full length. 21 Three "streets" run east-west: North Street runs between Gallery Set I and Gallery Set II; Main Street runs between Gallery Set II and Gallery Set III, terminating in the east in area MSE (see below); and South Street runs between Gallery Set IV and the South Street magazines. At the west end of each street there is a "gatehouse" (see NSGH, MSGH, and SSGH below).

Generally speaking, all of the galleries appear to have been set out following a uniform plan, even if the entrances are located in different places. Excavations in Gallery III.3 and III.4 revealed a set of smaller rooms in the south end that were apparently used for food preparation, cooking, and some small craft jobs such as (possibly) copper tool repairs, but the majority of the space in each gallery building is open, with evidence for columns (probably wooden) running along the center. In both Gallery III.3 and III.4 there was a raised bed platform near the northern door, possibly for an overseer or guard.

One hypothesis is that these spaces were used as a communal sleeping space for crews or work "gangs" of men. The identity of these crews is unknown, but over the years we have postulated that they may have been workers involved in pyramid construction, or expedition crews on their way north out of Egypt, or those crews involved in shipping goods and materials to the construction site from elsewhere in Egypt.

Gallery Set I (to the north) was heavily damaged by repeated flooding events, and during the Late Period a major cemetery grew up in this area, south of the Wall of the Crow. The full east-west extent of Gallery Set II is known but at present there has been no focused investigation other than in the far east end in the Manor (see below). Gallery Set III is the best known, due to the fact that two of the buildings, Gallery III.3 and Gallery III.4, have both been fully excavated, and in its east end the so-called Hypostyle Hall (as well as a set of small buildings between the Hypostyle Hall and Gallery Set III) have also been investigated (HH, see below). Gallery Set IV is also known only from the "footprint" plan, with the exception of the bakeries on the east end (see above, Area A7-B).



Gallery III.3 [GIII.3]

The so-called galleries, or "barracks," form the core of the Heit el-Ghurab site. They are enclosed to the west by a large stone wall, and to the north by a monumental structure known today as the Wall of the Crow (Heit el-Ghurab in Arabic). There is an entrance in the western enclosure wall. Four sets of galleries were fully revealed during the major "millennium project," 20 each with 9–12 individual gallery buildings (numbered west-east). Most of the area has only been investigated minimally. The overall "footprint" plan was revealed by removal of the overburden layers, and a few small interventions were conducted, but Gallery Set III Buildings 3 and 4 (GIII.3, GIII.4) have been excavated along their full length. 21 Three "streets" run east-west: North Street runs between Gallery Set I and Gallery Set II; Main Street runs between Gallery Set II and Gallery Set III, terminating in the east in area MSE (see below); and South Street runs between Gallery Set IV and the South Street magazines. At the west end of each street there is a "gatehouse" (see NSGH, MSGH, and SSGH below).

Generally speaking, all of the galleries appear to have been set out following a uniform plan, even if the entrances are located in different places. Excavations in Gallery III.3 and III.4 revealed a set of smaller rooms in the south end that were apparently used for food preparation, cooking, and some small craft jobs such as (possibly) copper tool repairs, but the majority of the space in each gallery building is open, with evidence for columns (probably wooden) running along the center. In both Gallery III.3 and III.4 there was a raised bed platform near the northern door, possibly for an overseer or guard.

One hypothesis is that these spaces were used as a communal sleeping space for crews or work "gangs" of men. The identity of these crews is unknown, but over the years we have postulated that they may have been workers involved in pyramid construction, or expedition crews on their way north out of Egypt, or those crews involved in shipping goods and materials to the construction site from elsewhere in Egypt.

Gallery Set I (to the north) was heavily damaged by repeated flooding events, and during the Late Period a major cemetery grew up in this area, south of the Wall of the Crow. The full east-west extent of Gallery Set II is known but at present there has been no focused investigation other than in the far east end in the Manor (see below). Gallery Set III is the best known, due to the fact that two of the buildings, Gallery III.3 and Gallery III.4, have both been fully excavated, and in its east end the so-called Hypostyle Hall (as well as a set of small buildings between the Hypostyle Hall and Gallery Set III) have also been investigated (HH, see below). Gallery Set IV is also known only from the "footprint" plan, with the exception of the bakeries on the east end (see above, Area A7-B).



Gallery III.4 [GIII.4]

The so-called galleries, or "barracks," form the core of the Heit el-Ghurab site. They are enclosed to the west by a large stone wall, and to the north by a monumental structure known today as the Wall of the Crow (Heit el-Ghurab in Arabic). There is an entrance in the western enclosure wall. Four sets of galleries were fully revealed during the major "millennium project," 20 each with 9–12 individual gallery buildings (numbered west-east). Most of the area has only been investigated minimally. The overall "footprint" plan was revealed by removal of the overburden layers, and a few small interventions were conducted, but Gallery Set III Buildings 3 and 4 (GIII.3, GIII.4) have been excavated along their full length. 21 Three "streets" run east-west: North Street runs between Gallery Set I and Gallery Set II; Main Street runs between Gallery Set II and Gallery Set III, terminating in the east in area MSE (see below); and South Street runs between Gallery Set IV and the South Street magazines. At the west end of each street there is a "gatehouse" (see NSGH, MSGH, and SSGH below).

Generally speaking, all of the galleries appear to have been set out following a uniform plan, even if the entrances are located in different places. Excavations in Gallery III.3 and III.4 revealed a set of smaller rooms in the south end that were apparently used for food preparation, cooking, and some small craft jobs such as (possibly) copper tool repairs, but the majority of the space in each gallery building is open, with evidence for columns (probably wooden) running along the center. In both Gallery III.3 and III.4 there was a raised bed platform near the northern door, possibly for an overseer or guard.

One hypothesis is that these spaces were used as a communal sleeping space for crews or work "gangs" of men. The identity of these crews is unknown, but over the years we have postulated that they may have been workers involved in pyramid construction, or expedition crews on their way north out of Egypt, or those crews involved in shipping goods and materials to the construction site from elsewhere in Egypt.

Gallery Set I (to the north) was heavily damaged by repeated flooding events, and during the Late Period a major cemetery grew up in this area, south of the Wall of the Crow. The full east-west extent of Gallery Set II is known but at present there has been no focused investigation other than in the far east end in the Manor (see below). Gallery Set III is the best known, due to the fact that two of the buildings, Gallery III.3 and Gallery III.4, have both been fully excavated, and in its east end the so-called Hypostyle Hall (as well as a set of small buildings between the Hypostyle Hall and Gallery Set III) have also been investigated (HH, see below). Gallery Set IV is also known only from the "footprint" plan, with the exception of the bakeries on the east end (see above, Area A7-B).



Gallery Set IV [GIV]

The so-called galleries, or "barracks," form the core of the Heit el-Ghurab site. They are enclosed to the west by a large stone wall, and to the north by a monumental structure known today as the Wall of the Crow (Heit el-Ghurab in Arabic). There is an entrance in the western enclosure wall. Four sets of galleries were fully revealed during the major "millennium project," 20 each with 9–12 individual gallery buildings (numbered west-east). Most of the area has only been investigated minimally. The overall "footprint" plan was revealed by removal of the overburden layers, and a few small interventions were conducted, but Gallery Set III Buildings 3 and 4 (GIII.3, GIII.4) have been excavated along their full length. 21 Three "streets" run east-west: North Street runs between Gallery Set I and Gallery Set II; Main Street runs between Gallery Set II and Gallery Set III, terminating in the east in area MSE (see below); and South Street runs between Gallery Set IV and the South Street magazines. At the west end of each street there is a "gatehouse" (see NSGH, MSGH, and SSGH below).

Generally speaking, all of the galleries appear to have been set out following a uniform plan, even if the entrances are located in different places. Excavations in Gallery III.3 and III.4 revealed a set of smaller rooms in the south end that were apparently used for food preparation, cooking, and some small craft jobs such as (possibly) copper tool repairs, but the majority of the space in each gallery building is open, with evidence for columns (probably wooden) running along the center. In both Gallery III.3 and III.4 there was a raised bed platform near the northern door, possibly for an overseer or guard.

One hypothesis is that these spaces were used as a communal sleeping space for crews or work "gangs" of men. The identity of these crews is unknown, but over the years we have postulated that they may have been workers involved in pyramid construction, or expedition crews on their way north out of Egypt, or those crews involved in shipping goods and materials to the construction site from elsewhere in Egypt.

Gallery Set I (to the north) was heavily damaged by repeated flooding events, and during the Late Period a major cemetery grew up in this area, south of the Wall of the Crow. The full east-west extent of Gallery Set II is known but at present there has been no focused investigation other than in the far east end in the Manor (see below). Gallery Set III is the best known, due to the fact that two of the buildings, Gallery III.3 and Gallery III.4, have both been fully excavated, and in its east end the so-called Hypostyle Hall (as well as a set of small buildings between the Hypostyle Hall and Gallery Set III) have also been investigated (HH, see below). Gallery Set IV is also known only from the "footprint" plan, with the exception of the bakeries on the east end (see above, Area A7-B).



Hypostyle Hall [HH]

The Hypostyle Hall is located at the east end of Gallery Set III, so named because multiple rows of low mud benches running the length of the space were apparently bases for a large number of wooden columns, which presumably supported a roof. Thus the space would have been a hypostyle hall. 22 The most characteristic feature of this area, other than the numerous column bases, is the fact that many of the low benches were encrusted with the fine remains of fish scales. 23 We have hypothesized that this area may have been used for food processing/preparation, such as drying fish, and perhaps also food consumption—perhaps a kind of "canteen" for the workers.



Khentkawes Town East (Valley Complex) [KKT-E]

To the east of the well-known Khentkawes Town settlement complex, AERA discovered a massive basin that is thought to have filled with water, at least during the inundation, 41 with walled corridors running along the northern and western edges. The western corridors lead up into the Khentkawes Monument causeway running along the south side of the main settlement. 42



Khentkawes Town East Plus (Silo Building Complex) [KKT-E+]

To the east of the basin area on a much lower level than the KKT settlement, KKT-E+ appears to have been a major storage and possibly distribution facility. 43 Four granaries/silos have been excavated (hence the nickname Silo Building Complex, or SBC 44) in the northern end of a larger building complex, which also contained other, smaller, storage facilities and possibly quarters for an overseer. The silos were all constructed on a foundation layer of ash — a feature which is found elsewhere in KKT (see KKT-N).



Khentkawes Town House F [KKT-F]

The distinctive shape of the KKT settlement is L-shaped – the southern extension is the "foot." The buildings here were constructed directly on the limestone bedrock, and only minimal remains have survived. In some places less than one layer of mudbrick walling is preserved. The buildings are not as uniform as the modular houses in the main KKT-N area of buildings (see below), but also appear to have been large house complexes, possibly functioning as administrative centers.



Khentkawes Town North [KKT-N]

The main area of settlement in KKT is a line of large house complexes running east-west, lying along the northern side of the Khentkawes Monument causeway. 45 The houses, designated A though M, were initially laid out with similar plans, but over time they were altered. Following abandonment, the settlement was rebuilt and reoccupied. Each house retained a similar layout, with an entrance space, a central court, rooms with evidence of food preparation (hearths), baking rooms, and more "private" inner rooms, as well as—in some cases—large storage facilities (granaries). Houses A–C and F–M are exceptionally poorly preserved, with only a faint shadow of mudbrick remaining in some places, but Houses D–E are in much better condition. Although Selim Hassan had excavated the entirety of both D and E in the 1930s, and only minimal remains are left, AERA has been able to extract a great deal more information about the settlement. House E was excavated in 2009, 46 and House D was excavated in 2018. Within both houses the (entirely charred) archaeobotanical remains were abundant and exceptionally well-preserved. House E in particular contained a number of thick ash deposits in a bakery room and in hearths, and most notably as a foundation beneath the silos in the north end of the house. 47 The botanical samples from KKT-N are almost forty times richer than Heit el-Ghurab samples, and contain a far higher diversity of plants. 48



The Manor [Manor]

The Manor is located in the eastern end of Gallery Set II, opposite the Hypostyle Hall. It was named the manor at the time of discovery due to the fact that its plan suggested it may be a building allocated for an overseer. Only minimal excavations have taken place in the area.



Main Street [MS]

Of the three streets identified within the gallery complex, Main Street is the only one that has been excavated along its full length. 24 The archaeologists uncovered a small drain running along the center. One point to note is that botanical samples from this area were sieved prior to flotation, probably causing a loss of material. 25



Main Street East [MSE]

At the far eastern end of Main Street a series of pedestals were discovered, with remnants of a north-south wall to the east which appears to separate the main gallery complex from the more village-like Eastern Town. 26 The pedestals in this area are laid out in one long row, rather than being enclosed in a building, as is the case in Area AA (see above). As well as the pedestals, the excavators noted a significant quantity of bread mold fragments, and within one square a major deposit of stone tool working debris suggests that this area was used for the production of lithic knives and blades.



Main Street Gate House [MSGH]

This small building is located at the western end of Main Street. It has only been partially excavated.



Menkaure Valley Temple East [MVT-E]

The Menkaure Valley Temple, like many other valley temples of the Old Kingdom, was re-purposed as a settlement during the 5th–6th Dynasties. The entire complex was excavated by George Reisner in 1923, but AERA has re-investigated the eastern end of the temple/settlement. 49 The majority of deposits are not contemporary with the occupation of the temple complex, and only a small number of samples were collected.



North Street Gate House [NSGH]

Of the three "gatehouse" buildings, NSGH was the most fully excavated. Despite damage by Late Period burials, a significant amount of the building was still intact. Excavators identified at least one ash-filled baking room, 27 and a number of large in-situ storage jars. 28



Soccer Field West [SFW]

The area to the west of the Abu el-Hol Soccer Field was occupied by a number of larger house complexes. 29 Detailed investigation of one of the identified house complexes (to date there are three) which appear to have been occupied by officials or scribes. House Unit 1 (SFWH1) seems to have been home to a scribal workshop. It contains a series of rooms; some apparently used for official business, some spaces were used for food preparation (including a baking room), and some rooms for sleeping. 30 The remains of the wall decoration and the material culture all indicate that the people living here were of far higher rank than the people in the galleries. Perhaps one of the most important features of this area was the so-called Pottery Mound (SFWPM), 31 which lay to the south of House Unit 1 (and to the east of the AA-S complex). Pottery Mound was indeed a huge mound of pottery (primarily the so-called "beer" jars), as well as a large quantity of animal bones 32 and an extraordinary amount of clay sealing impressions. 33 Many of these impressions indicate the presence of a high official—a head scribe, probably a man named Seshemnefer. The royal names on the clay sealings from the area include Khafre and Menkaure.



Soccer Field West House 1 [SFWH1]

The area to the west of the Abu el-Hol Soccer Field was occupied by a number of larger house complexes. 29 Detailed investigation of one of the identified house complexes (to date there are three) which appear to have been occupied by officials or scribes. House Unit 1 (SFWH1) seems to have been home to a scribal workshop. It contains a series of rooms; some apparently used for official business, some spaces were used for food preparation (including a baking room), and some rooms for sleeping. 30 The remains of the wall decoration and the material culture all indicate that the people living here were of far higher rank than the people in the galleries. Perhaps one of the most important features of this area was the so-called Pottery Mound (SFWPM), 31 which lay to the south of House Unit 1 (and to the east of the AA-S complex). Pottery Mound was indeed a huge mound of pottery (primarily the so-called "beer" jars), as well as a large quantity of animal bones 32 and an extraordinary amount of clay sealing impressions. 33 Many of these impressions indicate the presence of a high official—a head scribe, probably a man named Seshemnefer. The royal names on the clay sealings from the area include Khafre and Menkaure.



Soccery Field West Pottery Mound [SFWPM]

The area to the west of the Abu el-Hol Soccer Field was occupied by a number of larger house complexes. 29 Detailed investigation of one of the identified house complexes (to date there are three) which appear to have been occupied by officials or scribes. House Unit 1 (SFWH1) seems to have been home to a scribal workshop. It contains a series of rooms; some apparently used for official business, some spaces were used for food preparation (including a baking room), and some rooms for sleeping. 30 The remains of the wall decoration and the material culture all indicate that the people living here were of far higher rank than the people in the galleries. Perhaps one of the most important features of this area was the so-called Pottery Mound (SFWPM), 31 which lay to the south of House Unit 1 (and to the east of the AA-S complex). Pottery Mound was indeed a huge mound of pottery (primarily the so-called "beer" jars), as well as a large quantity of animal bones 32 and an extraordinary amount of clay sealing impressions. 33 Many of these impressions indicate the presence of a high official—a head scribe, probably a man named Seshemnefer. The royal names on the clay sealings from the area include Khafre and Menkaure.



South Street Gate House [SSGH]

This is the southernmost gate house. The plan of this building was determined via scraping across the tops of walls and minimal excavation.



Standing Wall Island [SWI]

Located on the southwestern corner of the Heit el-Ghurab site, separated from the SFW area by a broad low lying area, SWI could not be excavated for many years due to exceptionally high water-tables levels. The area is defined by a fieldstone enclosure wall, with a large open (empty) space occupying the southern 60%. We have hypothesized that the entire complex was an animal stockyard and slaughterhouse. 34 In the northern half of SWI there are two walled "enclosures" of roughly equal size. The whole area of the eastern enclosure (ES2) has been excavated, and the layout of the building and use of spaces suggests that it was the home and office of an overseer. 35 Within the enclosure there was a vestibule, an oven room, a room with vats and storage bins, a granary, and storage spaces, as well as a room containing all the trappings of a high official's "office" (painted plaster, pilastered niches, and stone furniture supports). 36 After the building fell out of use, the central court area was filled with a layer of thick black ash, which may be the remains of dumped waste burned in-situ. Enclosure 1 (ES1) to the west has only been minimally investigated.

One issue affecting botanical remains from this area is the infestation of a thick growth of Phragmites australis, the roots of which cause major damage to the (damp) charred remains.



The Big Leap Forward [TBLF]

TBLF features are the result of a major expansion of the excavation area undertaken in 1998. After the full plan of the gallery complex was revealed, 37 this was later designated as part of Gallery Set II.



Wall of the Crow East [WCE]

A number of trenches have been opened around this massive monumental wall that defines the northern edge of the HeG site. WCE (Wall of the Crow East) is an area densely filled with Late Period burials. WCG (Wall of the Crow Gate) was a trench on the south side of the large open gateway through the wall on its western end. WCGN (Wall of the Crow Gate North) was a series of smaller trenches to the north of the gateway. WCN/DDT (Wall of the Crow North/Dead Dog Trench) was a trench on the north side of the wall, 38 which happened to contain a number of dead dogs - hence the nickname. 39 Much of the work in these areas has been focused on identifying the stratigraphic and geological history of the area, 40 and was undertaken in response to modern construction projects associated with the Coptic/Muslim cemetery, which cut into archaeological deposits associated with the Wall of the Crow.



Wall of the Crow Gate North [WCGN]

A number of trenches have been opened around this massive monumental wall that defines the northern edge of the HeG site. WCE (Wall of the Crow East) is an area densely filled with Late Period burials. WCG (Wall of the Crow Gate) was a trench on the south side of the large open gateway through the wall on its western end. WCGN (Wall of the Crow Gate North) was a series of smaller trenches to the north of the gateway. WCN/DDT (Wall of the Crow North/Dead Dog Trench) was a trench on the north side of the wall, 38 which happened to contain a number of dead dogs - hence the nickname. 39 Much of the work in these areas has been focused on identifying the stratigraphic and geological history of the area, 40 and was undertaken in response to modern construction projects associated with the Coptic/Muslim cemetery, which cut into archaeological deposits associated with the Wall of the Crow.



Wall of the Crow North [WCN]

A number of trenches have been opened around this massive monumental wall that defines the northern edge of the HeG site. WCE (Wall of the Crow East) is an area densely filled with Late Period burials. WCG (Wall of the Crow Gate) was a trench on the south side of the large open gateway through the wall on its western end. WCGN (Wall of the Crow Gate North) was a series of smaller trenches to the north of the gateway. WCN/DDT (Wall of the Crow North/Dead Dog Trench) was a trench on the north side of the wall, 38 which happened to contain a number of dead dogs - hence the nickname. 39 Much of the work in these areas has been focused on identifying the stratigraphic and geological history of the area, 40 and was undertaken in response to modern construction projects associated with the Coptic/Muslim cemetery, which cut into archaeological deposits associated with the Wall of the Crow.



Wall of the Crow North Dead Dog Trench [WCN--DDT]

A number of trenches have been opened around this massive monumental wall that defines the northern edge of the HeG site. WCE (Wall of the Crow East) is an area densely filled with Late Period burials. WCG (Wall of the Crow Gate) was a trench on the south side of the large open gateway through the wall on its western end. WCGN (Wall of the Crow Gate North) was a series of smaller trenches to the north of the gateway. WCN/DDT (Wall of the Crow North/Dead Dog Trench) was a trench on the north side of the wall, 38 which happened to contain a number of dead dogs - hence the nickname. 39 Much of the work in these areas has been focused on identifying the stratigraphic and geological history of the area, 40 and was undertaken in response to modern construction projects associated with the Coptic/Muslim cemetery, which cut into archaeological deposits associated with the Wall of the Crow.



Wall of the Crow South, Wall of the Crow Gate [WCS--WCG]

A number of trenches have been opened around this massive monumental wall that defines the northern edge of the HeG site. WCE (Wall of the Crow East) is an area densely filled with Late Period burials. WCG (Wall of the Crow Gate) was a trench on the south side of the large open gateway through the wall on its western end. WCGN (Wall of the Crow Gate North) was a series of smaller trenches to the north of the gateway. WCN/DDT (Wall of the Crow North/Dead Dog Trench) was a trench on the north side of the wall, 38 which happened to contain a number of dead dogs - hence the nickname. 39 Much of the work in these areas has been focused on identifying the stratigraphic and geological history of the area, 40 and was undertaken in response to modern construction projects associated with the Coptic/Muslim cemetery, which cut into archaeological deposits associated with the Wall of the Crow.




References


1'Pyramid Age Bakery Reconstructed. Experimental Archaeology Offers Clues to Ancient Baking Technology', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 1.1 (1996), 6–7.

2For discussion of Heit el-Ghurab bakeries see H. Mahmoud and R. Eissa, 'Bakeries at the Heit El-Ghurab Site: An Introduction', in Settlement and Cemetery at Giza: Papers from the 2010 AERA-ARCE Field School (Boston: Ancient Egypt Research Associates, 2015), pp. 15–32.

3Taylor in M. Lehner, M. Kamel, and A. Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Seasons 2006-2007 Preliminary Report, Giza Occasional Papers, 3 (Boston: Ancient Egypt Research Associates, 2009), pp. 78–86.

4Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Seasons 2006-2007 Preliminary Report, pp. 65–69; M. Lehner and W. Wetterstrom, 'Enigma of the Pedestals: 2006 - 2007 Field Season', AERAgram, 8.2 (2007), 1–3.

5 M. Lehner, M. Kamel, and A. Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2005 Preliminary Report, Giza Occasional Papers, 2 (Boston: Ancient Egypt Research Associates, 2006), p. 69.

6Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Seasons 2006-2007 Preliminary Report, pp. 69–77.

7H. Mahmoud and J. Taylor, 'A Preliminary Report on the AA Bakery', in Settlement and Cemetery at Giza. Reports from the 2010 AERA-ARCE Field School (Boston: Ancient Egypt Research Associates, 2015), pp. 35–54.

8'Another Official's House Emerges in Season 2015', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 16.2 (2015), 18–21.

9Sadarangani in Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Seasons 2006-2007 Preliminary Report, pp. 61–65; Murray in Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2009 Preliminary Report, ed. by M. Lehner, Giza Occasional Papers, 5 (Boston: Ancient Egypt Research Associates, 2011), pp. 153–71; 'Pharaoh's Stroeroom & Counting House', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 6.1 (2002), 6–7.

10Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2005 Preliminary Report, pp. 40–60.

11'Three Roads Diverged', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 8.1 (2006), 14–15.

12W. Wetterstrom, 'The Older Phase: A Glimpse of the Early Pyramid Age at Giza', AERAgram, 3.1 (1999), 8–9 and 11.

13M. Lehner, M. Kamel, and A. Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2004 Preliminary Report, ed. by W. Wetterstrom and A. Witsell, Giza Occasional Papers, 1 (Boston: Ancient Egypt Research Associates, 2009), pp. 14–16; Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2005 Preliminary Report, pp. 35–39.

14Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Seasons 2006-2007 Preliminary Report, pp. 44–49; R. Eissa, 'A Preliminary Report on the EOG-D Bakery', in Settlement and Cemetery at Giza. Papers from the 2010 AERA-ARCE Field School (Boston: Ancient Egypt Research Associates, 2015), pp. 55–68.

15Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2004 Preliminary Report, pp. 13–14.

16'Finding the Folk: The Workmen’s Houses', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 5.2 (2002), 16; 'The Eastern Town', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 6.2 (2002), 10.

17W. Wetterstrom, 'Behind Mudbrick Walls: Life in an Eastern Town House', AERAgram, 7.2 (2004), 6–7.

18'Conservation Pilot Project. A Humble Compound Reborn', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 8.1 (2006), 8–9.

19Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2004 Preliminary Report, pp. 16–18.

20M. Lehner, 'Interim Report from the Field: A Royal Plan Emerges', AERAgram, 3.2 (2000), 1 & 6–10; M. Lehner, 'The First Year of the Millennium Project: Unveiling a Royal Plan', AERAgram, 4.1 (2000), 1–2 & 6–7; M. Lehner, 'Great Giza Galleries! Year Two of Millennium Project', AERAgram, 4.2 (2001), 1–2 & 6–7; 'The Gift That Worked: The Millennium Project', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 6.1 (2002), 1–2.

21Abd el-Aziz in Giza Reports. The Giza Plateau Mapping Project. Volume 1. Project History, Survey, Ceramics and Main Street and Gallery III.4 Operations, ed. by M. Lehner and W. Wetterstrom (Boston: Ancient Egypt Research Associates, 2007), pp. 193–234; For botany see Murray in Lehner and Wetterstrom, Giza Reports. The Giza Plateau Mapping Project. Volume 1. Project History, Survey, Ceramics and Main Street and Gallery III.4 Operations, pp. 257–58; 'A Gallery Unveiled', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 6.1 (2002), 4–5; 'The Gallery Complex Gives Up Some Of Its Secrets', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 16.1 (2015), 12–16.

22'Egypt’s Oldest Hypostyle Hall', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 4.1 (2000), 2.

23W. Wetterstrom, 'The 1995 Field Season. A Massive Fish Processing Center Discovered amidst Enigatic Long, Low Plastered Benches', AERAgram, 1.1 (1996), 8–9.

24Abd el-Aziz in Lehner and Wetterstrom, Giza Reports. The Giza Plateau Mapping Project. Volume 1. Project History, Survey, Ceramics and Main Street and Gallery III.4 Operations, pp. 109–40.

25Murray in Lehner and Wetterstrom, Giza Reports. The Giza Plateau Mapping Project. Volume 1. Project History, Survey, Ceramics and Main Street and Gallery III.4 Operations, pp. 163–65.

26Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Seasons 2006-2007 Preliminary Report, pp. 35–44.

27Mahmoud and Eissa, pp. 26–27.

28Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2004 Preliminary Report, pp. 10–13.

28Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2004 Preliminary Report, pp. 10–13.

29W. Wetterstrom, 'Season 2004: A New Neighbourhood', AERAgram, 7.2 (2004), 1–3.

30Kawae in Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Seasons 2006-2007 Preliminary Report, pp. 88–91; Sadaranghani and Kawae in Lehner, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2009 Preliminary Report, pp. 135–45.

31Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2005 Preliminary Report, pp. 69–73.

32R. Redding, '"Treasures" from a High-Class Dump', AERAgram, 8.2 (2007), 6–7.

33J. Nolan and A. Pavlick, 'Impressions of the Past: Seals and Sealings from Pottery Mound', AERAgram, 9.1 (2008), 2–4.

34R. Redding, 'The OK Corral: Standing Wall Island Mystery, Solved', AERAgram, 12.1 (2011), 2–5; R. Redding and W. Wetterstrom, 'Season 2015: Doing Science at Giza', AERAgram, 15.1–2 (2014), 10–13.

35M. Lehner, 'Discovery 2015: House of a High Official', AERAgram, 16.1 (2015), 2–7; 'Season 2016: Exploring a HIgh Official's Office-Residence', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 17.1–2 (2016), 2–7.

36E. Malek, 'From the Giza Field Lab: Unique Finds in a High Official's Office-Residence', AERAgram, 17.1–2 (2016), 10–11.

37M. Lehner, 'The Big Leap Forward... What Did We Get?', AERAgram, 2.2 (1998), 1–2 & 6–7.

38'Rescue Archaeology. Deep Gouge Offers Clues to a High Wall', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 8.1 (2006), 9–12.

39Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2005 Preliminary Report, pp. 21–31; Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Seasons 2006-2007 Preliminary Report, pp. 12–17.

40Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2004 Preliminary Report, pp. 45–54; 'Up Against the Wall - the Wall of the Crow', ed. by W. Wetterstrom, AERAgram, 5.1 (2001), 6–8.

41W. Wetterstrom, 'KKT-E+: The Buried Basin and the Town Beyond', AERAgram, 12.1 (2011), 10–13; W. Wetterstrom and M. Lehner, 'Construction Hub to Cult Center: Re-Purposing, Old Kingdom Style', AERAgram, 15.1–2, 2–5.

42M. Lehner, M. Kamel, and A. Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2008 Preliminary Report, Giza Occasional Papers, 4 (Boston: Ancient Egypt Research Associates, 2009), pp. 33–44; Jones and Lehner in Lehner, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2009 Preliminary Report, pp. 17–28; A. Tavares, 'Two Royal Towns: Old Digs New Finds', AERAgram, 9.2 (2008), 8–11; M. Lehner, 'Valley Complex for a Queen Who Would Be King', AERAgram, 10.2 (2009), 7–9.

43Wetterstrom, 'KKT-E+: The Buried Basin and the Town Beyond.

44W. Wetterstrom, 'Conondrus and Surprises: The Silo Building Complex', AERAgram, 13.2 (2012), 6–9.

45Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Seasons 2006-2007 Preliminary Report, pp. 7–12; Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2008 Preliminary Report, pp. 13–21.

46A. Tavares and L. Yeomans, 'A House Through Time: Building, Abandonment and Intermingling', AERAgram, 10.2 (2009), 10–13.

47Lehner and Yeomans and Mahmoud in Lehner, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2009 Preliminary Report, pp. 35–52; C. Malleson, 'An Ancient Egyptian Insect Repellant', AERAgram, 14.2 (2013), 6–7.

48M. A. Murray and R. A. Gendy, 'A Report on the Khentkawes Town - House E. Archaeobotanical Remains.', in Settlement and Cemetery at Giza. Reports from the 2010 AREA-ARCE Field School (Boston: Ancient Egypt Research Associates, 2015), pp. 237–52; C. Malleson, 'Informal Intercropping of Legumes with Cereals? A Reassessment of Clover Abundance in Ancient Egyptian Cereal Processing by-Product Assemblages: Archaeobotanical Investigations at Khentkawes Town, Giza (2300 – 2100BC)', Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 25.5 (2016), 431–42; C. Malleson, 'Weeds and Seeds: On the Trail of Ancient Egyptian Agriculture', AERAgram, 14.1 (2013), 22–23.

49Lehner, Kamel, and Tavares, Giza Plateau Mapping Project Season 2008 Preliminary Report, pp. 21–29; Tavares.

Property or Relation Value(s)
Temporal Coverage
[Standard: Dublin Core Terms]
Old Kingdom
[Standard: UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology]
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The annotations presented above approximate some of the meaning in this contributed data record to concepts defined in shared standards. These annotations are provided to help make datasets easier to understand and use with other datasets.

Suggested Citation

Claire Malleson, Rebekah Miracle. "Area Descriptions from Egypt/Giza/Menkaure Valley Temple". (2018) In Giza Botanical Database. Claire Malleson, Rebekah Miracle (Eds.) . Released: 2018-11-19. Open Context. <http://opencontext.org/documents/74b263b5-1bdc-43ce-9cc8-1a55593d68d5>

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Mapping Data

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