Open Context


Faunal Data from Al-Wu’ayra Fortress, Petra Valley, Jordan

Animal bones dating to the 12th century CE, collected during the 1993 excavations in the military garrison

Project Abstract


Al-Wu’ayra fortress was part of a network of fortified settlements controlling the major caravan routes from Syria to southern Jordan. The fortress ruled the access to the Petra valley during the Crusader and Ayyubid periods. The analyzed animal bones, collected in 1993 from the area of the military garrison, are dated to the 12th century. The study was carried out by Chiara A. Corbino and Paul Mazza (University of Florence) from 2005 to 2007 as part of the project Medieval Petra. Archaeology of Crusader and Ayyubid settlements in Transjordan of the University of Florence (Italy).

List of related publications

Corbino C.A. and P. Mazza

Faunal remains at the castle of Al-Wu’Ayra, in Petra, and at the castle of Shawbak (crusaders’ period), Studies in the History and the Archaeology of Jordan, 11, Amman, pp. 159-164.

Brown, R. M. and K. Rielly

A Twelfth Century Faunal Assemblage from al-Wu'ayra in the Southern Highlands of Jordan. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan, 54, pp. 121-141.

Tonghini C. and A. Vanni Desideri

The material evidence from al-Wu'ayra: a sample of pottery, Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan, 7, Amman, pp. 707-719.

Vannini G. and C. Tonghini

Medieval Petra. The stratigraphic evidence from recent archaeological excavations at al-Wu’ayra, Studies in the History and the Archaeology of Jordan, 6, Amman, pp. 371-384.

Vannini G. and A. Vanni Desideri

Archaeological research on Medieval Petra: a preliminary report, Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan, 39, pp. 509-540.


  • University of Florence
  • CNR (Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche- Italy-) of Rome
  • CNRS (Centre National de Recerce Scientific- France-) of Marsiglie
  • The Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Project director, Prof. Guido Vannini (University of Florence)

Methodological notes

The faunal remains have been identified using atlases (Barone 1976; Boessneck, Müller and Teichert 1964; Cohen and Serjeantson 1986; Halstead, Collins and Isaakidou 2002; Prummel and Frisch 1986; Schmid 1972; Tomek and Bocheński 2000), as well as the specimens of the ‘Borzatti’ reference collection of the University of Florence. Ontogenetic data are based on long bone epiphyseal fusion and ossification degree (Reitz and Wing 1999), as well as on the Hillson’s (1986) tooth eruption and wear criteria.


Barone, R.

Anatomia comparata dei mammiferi domestici. Osteologia, Bologna.

Boessneck, J., Müller, H.H. and M. Teichert

Osteologische Unterscheidungsmerkmale zwischen Schaf (Ovis aries Linné) and Ziege (Capra hircus Linné). Kühn-Archiv, 78: 1-29.

Cohen, A. and D. Serjeantson

A Manual for the identification of bird bones from archaeological sites, London.

Halstead, P., Collins, P., and V., Isaakidou

Sorting the sheep from the goat: morphological distinctions between the mandibles and mandibular teeth of adult Ovis and Capra, Journal of Archaeological Science, 29: 545-553.

Hillson, S.

Teeth, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Prummel, W. and H.J. Frisch

A guide for the identification of species, sex and body side in bones of sheep and goat, Journal of Archaeological Science, 13, pp. 567-577.

Reitz, E.J. and E.S. Wing

Zooarchaeology, Cambridge University.

Schmid, E.

Atlas of Animal Bones, Elsevier Publishing Company.

Tomek, T. and Z. Bocheński

The comparative osteology of European Corvids (Aves: Corvidae), with a key to the identification of their skeletal elements, Kraków.

Annotations (4)

Property or Relation Value(s)
[Standard: Dublin Core Terms]
[Standard: Dublin Core Terms]
[Standard: GeoNames]
Temporal Coverage
[Standard: Dublin Core Terms]
Crusader/Byzantine/Seljuq Middle East (AD 1081-1204)
[Standard: Pleiades: Time Periods]
Editorial Note

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The annotations presented above approximate some of the meaning in this contributed data record to concepts defined in shared standards. These annotations are provided to help make datasets easier to understand and use with other datasets.

Suggested Citation

Chiara A Corbino, Paul Mazza. "Faunal Data from Al-Wu’ayra Fortress, Petra Valley, Jordan". (2018) Chiara A Corbino, Paul Mazza (Eds.) . Released: 2018-02-24. Open Context. <> DOI:

Editorial Status

Managing editor reviewed

Mapping Data

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