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In 1991, a master grid system was established for the entire site of Poggio Civitate. A baseline was created running east-west, through the Piano del Tesoro and into the Civitate A and B areas of the site. In order to shoot this baseline, brush had to be cleared from Civitate B. While clearing brush, several semi-ovoid rock formations were revealed in Civitate B. Some of these formations were excavated, in order to better understand their nature and their relationship to other, known architectural features ( see TT I ). Based on the size and shape of these rock features and the pottery found inside of the rock features, these appear to be small tombs dateable to the 6th century BCE.

During the 1992 and 1996 excavation seasons, two of these formations provided more evidence that strongly indicated archaic pit burials (see EN IV and JAL I ). Material recovered in these trenches was

minimal, this conclusion is based on the material included and the intentional, unnatural shaping of the rock formations.

In 2005, two trenches were opened in Civitate B: CB 33 and CB 34 were excavated over outcroppings of stone that appeared to be similar to those in the 1992 and 1996 seasons. While evidence implied that the formation in CB 34 was not natural, no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that it served a funerary function (see JPB IV and ARN IV )

In 1992, a well, also dated to the 6th century BCE, was discovered in Civitate A, approximately 30 meters east of where some of the first rock formations were discovered (see CA 42 ). The presence of this well indicates that this part of the site may have been inhabited during the 6th century BCE and numerous trenches have been opened near this well in order to look for houses, huts, or any

other architectural features that would indicate non-elite habitation of this area of the site (see , Introduction for a more thorough treatment of excvations).

The majority of Civitate B area is located at a higher elevation than both the Civitate A and the Piano del Tesoro areas. Therefore it is impossible that the materials recovered during the previous excavations of Civitate B or surface finds eroded there; instead, the ancient material was the result of primary deposition, indicating that this part of the site was inhabited contemporaneously with Piano del Tesoro.

These previous finds and a recent clearing of vegetation in the area prompted further exploratory trenches to be opened in the 2010 season. CB 36 and CB 37, located near the Medieval road, proved to be unhelpful in our understanding of the occupation of this area ( ARR I and DWM III ).

CB 35 and CB 39 revealed the presence of an archaic period lens (see KRK V and ARR II ). Additionally, CB 38 uncovered a strange deposit of dark organic clay-like soil surrounded by the typically sterile yellow soil of Civitate B (see FGT I ). However the complete horizontal and vertical extents of both deposits was not fully revealed, prompting further excavations in this area for the 2011 season.

CB 44 will be opened roughly 9 meters to the northeast of CB 38 in order to help better understand the deposit of dark organic clay-like soil. CB 44 coordinates are:

NW- 40W, 85S

NE- 35W, 85S

SE- 35W, 90S

SW- 40W, 90S

The goals of CB 44 for the 2011 season will be:

1. To better understand the area surrounding the deposits found in CB 38 and CB 39.

2. To recover dateable material from a secure context to better understand the occupation period of Civitate B.

3. To search for evidence of non-elite habitation on the western side of the hill in connection with the archaic well, located in Civitate A.

4. To better understand an area of the site that has not been excavated. Revealing new stratigraphic, and topographic information.

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Suggested Citation

Andrew J. Carroll. "AJC II (2011-07-08):3-12; Introduction from Italy/Poggio Civitate/Civitate B/Civitate B 44/2011, ID:636". (2017) In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed.) . Released: 2017-10-04. Open Context. <>

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