Open Context

Final Summary

Tr. T-18 north of the north wall of main building is situated east of Tr. 17.  It was previously dug before, in a strip ab. 4 m wide, down to a level ab. 30-40 cm below ground surface.

T-18 was opened this year to continue exploration of the area north of the north wall.  Partly the same features occurred as in T-17 right westwards, partly not.  Characteristic for the area is its apparent feature variation: different types of soil in related areas, compact and extensive stone fills in some parts, earth free from stones nearby, a tile layer not as regularly distributed as "tile line" in T-17, etc.

On the whole, however, stones are found concentrated in south part of area dug, D-F/23-28, in some parts

forming a quite compact stone fill.  This slopes down and thins out towards north where a substantial tile layer was found covering G-J/25-30, its highest level ab. 50 cm from ground surface.  Its bottom is constituted by a hard batuto surface, mostly yellowish in color with small carbon patches on top.

In G-H/28-29 (and to a certain extent also corresponding grids to the west and east), a distinct pottery-bone-carbon layer intervenes between tile layer and batuto surface, containing large quantities of pottery and animal bones.  This tile layer is mainly concentrated north of a line of stones running through grids H-G/23-30, which is possible to trace from tr. T-17.

This stone line (ab. 70-80 cm below ground surface) is a very interesting feature as it might well be the remains of build-

ing outside the north wall of main building.  It follows a fairly straight line through the grids mentioned, with some lapses.  In G/27-28, it consists of dressed and vertically cut stones.  Its width seems to be remarkedly small.

South of this stone line in F-G/27-30, a "floor" level ab. 20 cm down from upper surface of stones was struck, its full extension not yet known.  This stratum has a very hard surface as it consists of small hard-packed gray stones; its surface is heavily colored by carbon.  Right on top of itw as found a substantial tile layer, on a lower level than the one found to the north and containing a higher percentage of cover tiles.

In F/29 was found a round formation of earthy consistency rising above gray stone stratum.  It is doubtful if it should be interpreted

as a hearth.

In F-G/27, where gray-stone stratum did not occur, tiles were found to continue downwards.

Along stone line's southern border was a fairly big and thick strip of clay wall plaster.  This material probably belongs to the stone wall.

The stone conecntration in grids D-E/23-28 might possibly be (fallen) parts of a wall between the big north wall of the main building and the stone line, and might possibly be the continuation of traces of a wall in T-17.  This ought to be explored by further digging down to a lower level in area mentioned and also eastwards and westwards.  Lower tile layer area (now visible in F-G/27-30) must also be defined by extended digging, as the area dug is too small to give any positive results.

It has to be explored whether the stone line is the southern or northern

limit of a construction north of the main building.  Four facts might possibly point to a southern-limit hypothesis:

  1. The position of the clay plaster pezzi as found in the earth along the stone line.
  2. The high proportion of cover tiles in south of stone line: an appropriate position if they belong to a building north of stone line, but might belong to main building!
  3. The much greater quantity of bones and esp. pottery found ot the north of stone line than to the south of it = inside?
  4. The type of batuto surface found to the north of stone line might perhaps be considered a more appro-

priate house floor pavement than the very hard small stone pack to the south of the wall = outside?

Stratification in F-G/27-30 area seems to indicate more than one period.

The relation of building remains in this area to the main building could be established by extending the trench up to the wall of the main building.

Pottery was found in much higher quantity in lower levels than in higher, esp. in and below tile layer.  (Not much in lower tile layer, though.)  Quality of bucchero sherds increases remarkably with depth.  Some high quality bucchero sherds, just a few Italo-Corinthian, and very few fragments of coppae of "Greek" type.

In the lower levels, a certain quantity of an undecorated grayware (found also in T-17) and also a distinct redware.  Some sherds

from outer tile layer fit with fragments from inner tile layer in F-G/29-30, indicating same period of tile layers.  Two sherds of grayish black mat bucchero with stamped palmette decoration.

Difficult to get any entire vases from T-18.

Soem remarkable finds, foremost the entire lower part of a ridgepole terracotta statue: fragments come from grids D-E/29-30, D-E/28, G/28.

Many gorgon antefixes, mostly from quite high levels, some in stone fill areas, but also down in outer tile layer.  They didn\'t occur regularly in a line ab. 7 m from the north wall, as they seem to do in T-17.

Small quantity of bronze.

Remarkable: a piece of obsidian.

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Suggested Citation

Eva Rystedt. "ER I (1971-08-11):250-269; Final Summary from Italy/Poggio Civitate/Tesoro/Tesoro 18/1971, ID:70". (2017) In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed.) . Released: 2017-10-04. Open Context. <>

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