Open Context

Daily Log

Monday, July 25, 2011


The morning began with a light pick pass in the middle meter of the trench. The pass was done with a pick axe to break the dirt into the clumps which was then sorted by hand and trowel into buckets. The soil is becoming a sandier, olive green / yellow soil that is yielding little terra cotta or pottery. The soil is the same soil type as the already lowered and leveled southern meter of the trench. Simultaneously the rocks uncovered in the northern meter of the trench. Although they appear to be sheared off bedrock affected by bioturbation from a neighboring tree stump they do lie at a slightly higher level then the rest of the trench, partly due to the natural slope of the hill, and will be defined. As defining began, the loose scattering of rocks were better exposed, many rocks popping out during the defining process. Defining of stumps in the northern / central meter of the trench using hand picks and trowels was also done. Using an axe the stumps were removed. After further defining of the rock cluster in the northern portion of the trench it was decided that Locus 2 be declared in order to differentiate the rock features and to further define and document it. A trench line was strung from east to west at 106.5 S.

Opening elevations were taken of Locus 2 using our datum string, a plum bob, and measuring tape. Coordinates were noted, a trench diagram drawn, and opening photos were taken. Using trowels and hand picks the soil around the rocks was removed, pulling out any loose stones, in order to see what lies below. The soil around the rocks remains a slightly sandy, olive colored soil that yields little to no terra cotta or pottery.

Locus 2 : Coordinates & Opening Elevations

\x95 NW (80 W / 105 S): 31.63 m A.E.

\x95 NE (78 W / 105 S): 31.68 m A.E.

\x95 SE (78 W / 106.5 S): 31.67 m A.E.

\x95 SW (80 W / 106.5 S): 31.67 m A.E.

Trench Diagram:

After the rocks were defined more and documented they were removed using a pick axe to pull up the loose stone and reveal what was below. During the pick pass and the cleaning up of the soil after, more rocks, in larger pieces, that are shearing off at all angels, and appears to be bedrock, was found. These rocks were then defined using a trowel, hand pick, and brush to clearly expose them.


The afternoon began with the declaration of Locus 3 due to a soil change. Locus 3 is the area compiling the southern half of the trench and its soil is a sandy, flaky, olive colored, galestra like soil. Photographs were taken, coordinates noted, and opening measurements were taken from Locus 3 . Defining of the rocs of Locus 2 was to continue simultaneously with a pick pass in Locus 3 . The soil is thought to be sterile in Locus 3 and perhaps even laying over bedrock similar to Locus 2 . Before a pick pass in Locus 3 could begin an unusual feature was discovered in Locus 2 . While defining rocks in Locus 2 with a trowel a flat rock was removed along with some of the sandy, olive colored soil beneath it. While that soil was being removed

Locus 3 : Opening Coordinates & Elevations

\x95 NW (80 W / 106.5 S): 31.68 m A.E.

\x95 NE (78 W / 106.5 S): 31.66 m A.E.

\x95 SE (78 W / 108 S): 31.56 m A.E.

\x95 SW (80 W / 108 S): 31.64 m A.E.

Trench Diagram:

A small crevice was discovered. Upon its discovery it was decided to extend the trench a meter north in order to hopefully expose the rest of the rock packing as well as the large bedrock wall which is included in the extension. Using the trenches east & west corner points, that were already aligned to the master grid, to align a measuring tape, the NE corner of the extension was found. This method was used again for the NW corner but the point fell directly onto the bedrock so a suspended point was created above the bedrock. The extension was declared Locus 4 and opening elevations and photographs were taken. 3 points defining the intrusion of the bedrock were also taken, recording elevation and orientation in order to outline the feature and to get accurate elevation in the NW corner since bedrock lies directly under it. A pick pass was then done throughout the extension and around the bedrock through the topsoil. The soil is a brown, root-filled hummus layer with a large presence of small rocks which appear to be sheared off the bedrock and is yielding a few pieces of worn terra cotta, mostly in the eastern portion, and some pottery sherds. Because of the time constraints closing elevations were not taken, but opening elevations will be taken tomorrow.

Locus 4 (Extension): Opening Coordinates & Elevations

\x95 NW (80 W / 104 S): 32.10 m A.E. * note: this point is directly on bedrock, hence the higher elevation

\x95 NE (78 W / 104 S): 31.95 m A.E.

\x95 SE (78 W / 105 S): 31.92 m A.E.

\x95 SW (80 W / 105 S): 31.92 m A.E.

\x95 1 (79.81 W / 104.32 S): 31.93 m A.E.

\x95 2 (79.20 W / 104.50 S): 31.95 m A.E.

\x95 3 (79.30 W / 104.10 S): 31.99 m A.E.

Locus 4 Diagram:

Trench Diagram:

Bulk Finds:

Locus 2 :

\x95 Terra Cotta: 10 sherds

\x95 Pottery: 1 sherd

\x95 Bone: 0 fragments

Locus 3 :

\x95 Terra Cotta: 0 sherds

\x95 Pottery: 0 sherds

\x95 Bone: 0 fragments

Locus 4 :

\x95 Terra Cotta: 6 sherds

\x95 Pottery: 1 sherd

\x95 Bone: 0 fragments

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Open Context editors work with data contributors to annotate datasets to shared vocabularies, ontologies, and other standards using 'Linked Open Data' (LOD) methods.

The annotations presented above approximate some of the meaning in this contributed data record to concepts defined in shared standards. These annotations are provided to help make datasets easier to understand and use with other datasets.

Suggested Citation

Mike C. Ginnard. "MCG I (2011-07-25):37-54; Daily Log from Italy/Poggio Civitate/Civitate B/Civitate B 48/2011, ID:643/Locus 1". (2017) In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed.) . Released: 2017-10-04. Open Context. <>

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