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Stratigraphy Summary

The strata of T-26:1987, LM/78-81 consists of four different layers.

1. The humus layer with dark brown, rooty soil and small stumps was devoid of many artifacts.  A number (17) of smooth riverstones which many have functioned as slingstones were recovered and saved, as well as smal tile and plaster fragments.  Very little pottery was recovered: only a few pieces of orange/red ware.

2. The second layer was light grey in color and contained a preponderance of large and small stones. FInds in this level were also minimal, limited to sporadic tile and plaster fragments, including a large plaster piece with a finished edge and reed marks (see p 6 ), some bone, and ivory fragments. Pottery finds were also minimal, and limited pirmarily to coarseware, impasto, and pithos, with the exception of a piece of bucchero, and small pieces of fine orangeware.

3. The third level appears only in meters LM/79-81 and is light grey-brown in color.

4. The fourth layer, which ran the length of the trench, contained a brown soil with a high concentration of carbonized materials, rocks, roots, tile and plaster.  Specific burn lines were evident at different depths, especially as ca. 80-90 cm below the surface, and at ca. 100-110 cm below the surface.  Specific high concentrations of plaster, both large and small examples and pieces with flat edges and reed marks were evident in L/78-80. Intermixed within these plaster pockets were fragments of pan and cover tiles, coarseware, pithos and bucchero, much with evidence of burning, especially on the underside. A tile fall appeared only at ca. 100 cm below surface, in meter L/80-81. These tiles extended into both the nothern and eastern baulks, and were removed to protect them from damage over the winter. The majority were fragmentary without letters or marking with the exception of two- a pan tile with the beginning of a letter and a fingerprint on the flange, and a cover tilew ith a rho.

Pottery finds within this level consisted

primarily of coarseware, pithos, and cooking pot fragments at ca. 60-70 below the surface.  Fragments of an Ionic bowl rim and an Italo-Corinthian body fragment were among the only examples of fineware excavated.  Bucchero, both with and without decoration, increased in appearance in the stratum at ca. 100cm below the surface.

Bone was also minimal until the stratum reached ca. 100 cm, and examples of cut and worked bone was recovered from this level.

Ivory and bronze artifacts were predominant at ca. 70-90cm, especially in meters LM/80-81. Iron objects were minimal.

Household implements and artifacts used in production/manufacture were found concentrating in L/78 throughout this stratum. These included loomweights, spindle whorls, rocchetti, cooking pot fragments, and a piece of forno.  Of particular interest was an almost completed coil-made bowl found in an upright position. Two impasto slingstones also came from this stratum; both were burned. Seven pieces of terra cotta waster were also excavated from this level.

The floor of the trench was left at ca . 110 cm below the surface. A noticeable change was visible in the soil-it was moist, dark, and greasy, with large pockets of carbonized material, pottyer, tile and a stone packing beneath.

The strata of MNO/72-77:

1. This level, the humus/topsoil layer, contained dark brown soil with stumps, roots, and rocks in evidence throughout. Beneath this stratum lay a horizontal line of rocks and boulders in a grey/brown soil (2). There was no evidence to suggest that this formed part of a wall.

2. At ca. 70cm below the surface a dark brown soil was encountered, containing more rocks, roots, and pockets of carbonized material.  Pottery was abundant in the souther-most meters and confined mostly to coarse-ware, orange ware and sporadically distributed pieces of bucchero. These meters also contained a bronze nail top, bronze flakes, bone, shell, a rocchetto, and pithos, as well as tile and plaster pieces.  A piece of glass, possibly belonging to a small bowl's rim was also recovered from this level

in the vicinity to the stump in MNO/74-75.

Excavation in this area terminated at ca.70cm below the surface. The trench floor displayed a heavy concentration of pithos and tile, in MNO/75, as well as small rocks and roots.

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Suggested Citation

Alexandra A. Carpino. "AAC I (1987-07-31):67-71; Stratigraphy Summary from Italy/Poggio Civitate/Tesoro/Tesoro 26/1987, ID:126". (2017) In Murlo. Anthony Tuck (Ed.) . Released: 2017-10-04. Open Context. <>

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